Motivation-Early & Contemporary Theory of Motivation

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Motivation: Early and Contemporary Theory of Motivation


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Motivation - Early & Contemporary Theory of Motivation:

Motivation - Early & Contemporary Theory of Motivation Dr. G C Mohanta, BE, MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al-Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management Hyderabad


Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Intensity – how hard a person tries Direction – effort that is channeled toward and consistent with organizational goals Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort

Motivation (Contd.):

Motivation (Contd.) The processes that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals , conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need . Effort: a measure of intensity or drive. Direction: toward organizational goals Need: personalized reason to exert effort

Motivation (Contd.):

Motivation (Contd.) Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals. Need An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. An unsatisfied need creates tension which is reduced by an individual’s efforts to satisfy the need.

Early Theories of Motivation:

Early Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Alderfer’s ERG Theory MacGregor’s Theories X and Y Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs. Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy. Hierarchy of needs Lower-order (external): physiological, safety Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Esteem Belongingness Security Physiology Food Achievement Status Friendship Stability Job Friends Pension Base NEEDS General Examples Organizational Examples job Challenging title at work plan salary

Alderfer’s ERG Theory :

Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence needs Physiological Relatedness needs How one individual relates to his/her social environment Growth needs Achievement and self actualization

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y:

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility and require close supervision. Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility and like to work. Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory:

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory:

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Contemporary Theories of Motivation:

Contemporary Theories of Motivation Three-Needs Theory Goal-Setting Theory Reinforcement Theory Job Characteristics Model (JCM) Equity Theory Expectancy Theory

McClelland’s Needs Theory:

McClelland’s Needs Theory Three-Needs Theory There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work. Need for achievement (nAch) The drive to excel and succeed Need for power (nPow) The need to influence the behavior of others Need of affiliation (nAff) The desire for interpersonal relationships

Goal-Setting Theory:

Goal-Setting Theory Goal-Setting Theory Proposes that setting goals that are accepted, specific, and challenging yet achievable will result in higher performance than having no or easy goals. Benefits of Participation in Goal-Setting Increases the acceptance of goals. Fosters commitment to difficult, public goals. Provides for self-feedback (internal locus of control) that guides behavior and motivates performance (self-efficacy).

Reinforcement Theory:

Reinforcement Theory Assumes that a desired behavior is a function of its consequences, is externally caused, and if reinforced, is likely to be repeated. Positive reinforcement is preferred for its long-term effects on performance Ignoring undesired behavior is better than punishment which may create additional dysfunctional behaviors.

Job Characteristics Model (JCM):

Job Characteristics Model (JCM) A conceptual framework for designing motivating jobs that create meaningful work experiences that satisfy employees’ growth needs. Five primary job characteristics: Skill variety: how many skills and talents are needed? Task identity: does the job produced a completed work? Task significance: how important is the job? Autonomy: how independence do the jobholder have? Feedback: do workers know how well they are doing?

Job Characteristics Model (Contd.):

Job Characteristics Model (Contd.) Combine tasks (job enlargement) to create more meaningful work. Create natural work units to make employees’ work important and whole. Establish external and internal client relationships to provide feedback. Expand jobs vertically (job enrichment) by giving employees more autonomy. Open feedback channels to let employees know how well they are doing.

Equity Theory:

Equity Theory Employees make comparison of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others:

Equity Theory:

Equity Theory Proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others. If the ratios are perceived as equal then a state of equity (fairness) exists. If the ratios are perceived as unequal, inequity exists and the person feels under- or over-rewarded. When inequities occur, employees will attempt to do something to rebalance the ratios (seek justice).

Equity Theory (cont’d):

Equity Theory (cont’d) Employee responses to perceived inequities: Distort own or others’ ratios. Induce others to change their own inputs or outcomes. Change own inputs (increase or decrease efforts) or outcomes (seek greater rewards). Choose a different comparison (referent) for other (person, systems, or self). Quit their job. Employees are concerned with both the absolute and relative nature of organizational rewards.

Expectancy Theory:

Expectancy Theory States that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Key to the theory is understanding and managing employee goals and the linkages among and between effort, performance and rewards. Effort: employee abilities and training/development Performance: valid appraisal systems Rewards (goals): understanding employee needs

Expectancy Relationships:

Expectancy Relationships Expectancy (effort-performance linkage) The perceived probability that an individual’s effort will result in a certain level of performance. Instrumentality The perception that a particular level of performance will result in the attaining a desired outcome (reward). Valence The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward (outcome) to the individual.

A General Model of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:

High Effort Decision to Exert Effort Low Effort Performance Goal Performance Goal Expectancy “What are my chances of reaching my performance goal if I work hard?” Expectancy “What are my chances of reaching my performance goal if I slack off?” Instrumentality “What are my chances of getting various outcomes if I achieve my performance goal?” Valence “How much do I value these outcomes?” Outcome 3 Outcome 2 Outcome 1 Outcome 3 Outcome 2 Outcome 1 A General Model of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory