Leadership-Early & Contemporary Approaches to Leadership

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Leadership: Early and Contemporary Approaches to Leadership


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Leadership - Early & Contemporary Approaches to Leadership:

Leadership - Early & Contemporary Approaches to Leadership Dr. G C Mohanta, BE, MSc( Engg ), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al- Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management Hyderabad


Leaders Leaders are individuals who exert influence to help meet group goals: Formal Informal Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help

What is Leadership?:

What is Leadership? The ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. Robert House (2004) The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. Robbins & Judge (2008)

Early Approaches to Leadership:

Early Approaches to Leadership Trait Approach Behavioral Approach Job-Centered and Employee-Centered Approach Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Approach Path-Goal Approach Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach Leader-Member Exchange Approach Hersey and Blanchard Model Fiedler’s Contingency Approach

Trait Approach:

Trait Approach The trait approach seeks to identify personal characteristics that effective leaders possess.

Some Traits/Characteristics of Effective Leader:

Some Traits/Characteristics of Effective Leader Intelligence Task-relevant knowledge Dominance Self-confidence Drive Motivation Energy/activity levels Tolerance for stress Integrity and honesty Emotional maturity Cognitive ability Knowledge of the business Charisma

Behavioral Approach:

Behavioral Approach The behavior approach focuses on the behaviors that effective leaders engage in. Consideration behavior – involves being concerned with subordinates’ feelings & respecting subordinates’ ideas Initiating Structure behavior – involves clearly defining the leader-subordinate roles so that subordinates know what is expected of them Leader Reward Behavior – involves rewarding the subordinates to motivate them for contribution Leader Punishing Behavior – involves punishing the subordinates to force them for contribution

Job-Centered and Employee-Centered Approach:

Job-Centered and Employee-Centered Approach Leaders exhibiting job-centered behaviors: Pay close attention to the work of subordinates Explain all work procedures Are interested mainly in performance and effective completion of the task Leaders exhibiting employee-centered behaviors: Pay close attention to the human aspects of the group Attempt to build effective work groups with high performance goals Employee-centered leader behavior is more likely to result in effective group performance than job-centered leader behavior.

Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Approach:

Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Approach Developed by Fred Fiedler, attempts to explain and reconcile both the leader’s personality and the complexities of the situation. Contends that a leader’s effectiveness depends on the situation and, as a result, some leaders may be effective in one situation or organization but not in another.

Elements of LPC Approach:

Elements of LPC Approach Task Motivation Versus Relationship Motivation Fiedler and his associates maintain that leadership effectiveness depends on the match between the leader’s personality and the situation. Fiedler also identified three factors that determine the favorableness of the situation: Leader-member relations Task structure Leader position power

Path-Goal Approach:

Path-Goal Approach Originated with expectancy theory of motivation Paths = Employee expectancies Goals = Employee performance Path-Goal Approach s tates that effective leaders ensure that employees who perform their jobs well receive more valued rewards than those who perform poorly

Path-Goal Leadership Model:

Path-Goal Leadership Model Employee Contingencies Environmental Contingencies Leader Behaviors Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented Leader Effectiveness Employee motivation Employee satisfaction Acceptance of leader

Path-Goal Leadership Styles:

Path-Goal Leadership Styles Directive Provide psychological structure to jobs Task-oriented behaviors Supportive Provide psychological support People-oriented behaviors Participative Encourage/facilitate employee involvement Achievement-oriented Encourage peak performance through goal setting and positive self-fulfilling prophecy

Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach:

Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach The key component of this approach is determining how much to involve subordinates in making decisions. The approach requires that managers use one of two different decision trees: Time-driven model (tree) – intended for use in making an effective decision as quickly as possible Development-driven model (tree) – used for developing the decision-making skills of others

Vroom’s Decision Tree (continued):

Vroom’s Decision Tree (continued) Situational Factors After choosing a tree, the leader assesses the situation in terms of several factors to determine whether the given factor is “high” or “low.” Factors include: Decision significance The importance & likelihood of commitment by followers The leader and group’s expertise Group support Team competence

Vroom’s Decision Tree (continued):

Vroom’s Decision Tree (continued) Decision Styles and Subordinate Participation Five decision styles are: Decide Delegate Consult (individually) Consult (group) Facilitate The model is a tool mangers can apply in deciding how much subordinates should participate in the decision-making process.

Leader-Member Exchange Approach:

Leader-Member Exchange Approach This model stresses that leaders develop unique working relationships with each of their subordinates. They establish a special relationship with a small number of trusted subordinates referred to as the in-group; subordinates who are not part of this group are called the out-group. In-group usually receives special duties requiring responsibility and autonomy; members may also receive special privileges. In-group members have a higher level of performance and satisfaction than out-group members.

Hersey and Blanchard Model:

Hersey and Blanchard Model The Hersey and Blanchard Model identifies different combinations of leadership presumed to work best with different levels of organizational maturing on the part of subordinates. As the maturity of the followers improves, the leader’s leadership style can shift from a “telling” style to a “selling” style and, finally, to a “delegating” style.

Fiedler’s Contingency Approach:

Fiedler’s Contingency Approach Leadership effectiveness determined by The characteristic of individuals The situations in which they find themselves Distinct leadership styles Relationship-oriented Task-oriented

Relationship-oriented & Task-oriented :

Relationship-oriented & Task-oriented Relationship-oriented Wants to be liked by and to get along well with subordinates Getting job done is second priority Task-oriented Wants high performance and accomplishment of all tasks Getting job done is first priority

Contemporary Approaches to Leadership:

Contemporary Approaches to Leadership Transformational Leadership Approach Transactional leadership Approach Charismatic Leadership Approach Level-5 Leadership Approach

Transformational Leadership Approach:

Transformational Leadership Approach A leadership perspective that explains how leaders change teams or organizations by creating, communicating, and modeling a vision for the organization or work unit, and inspiring employees to strive for that vision Inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of organization

Transformational Leadership Elements:

Transformational Leadership Elements Create a strategic vision Depiction of company’s attractive future motivates and bonds employees Leader champions the vision Communicate the vision Frame message around a grand purpose Create a shared mental model of the future Use symbols, metaphors

Transformational Leadership Elements (contd.):

Transformational Leadership Elements (contd.) Model the vision Walk the talk Symbolize/demonstrate the vision through behavior Builds employee trust in the leader Build commitment to the vision Increased through communicating and modeling the vision Increased through employee involvement in shaping the shared vision

Transactional Leadership Approach:

Transactional Leadership Approach Transactional leaders Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Managing & achieving current objectives more efficiently link job performance to rewards ensure employees have necessary resources

Charismatic Leadership Approach:

Charismatic Leadership Approach A person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers. Four characteristics of charismatic leaders Have a vision Are willing to take personal risks to achieve the vision Are sensitive to follower needs Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary

How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers:

How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers A four-step process: Leader articulates an attractive vision Vision Statement: A formal, long-term strategy to attain goals Links past, present, and future Leader communicates high performance expectations and confidence in follower ability Leader conveys a new set of values by setting an example Leader engages in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior to demonstrate convictions about the vision

Level-5 Leadership Approach:

Level-5 Leadership Approach Level-5 Leader are very effective leaders who possess four typical leadership traits: Individual competency Team skills Managerial competence Ability to stimulate others to high performance Plus a combination of strong professional will (determination) and humility that builds enduring greatness.