FOOD PRODUCTION

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FOOD PRODUCTION:

FOOD PRODUCTION

FOOD PRODUCTION:

FOOD PRODUCTION National calamities affect the country today. Prices of prime commodities had increased. People spend only for basic necessities.

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION:

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION Producing vegetable contributes to the economy of the country and provides for better nutrition of the people.

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION:

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION Varieties of vegetable crops: Lettuce, Tomato, Cabbage, Radish, Squash, Garlic, Onion, Pepper, Pechay, Okra, Ampalaya, Mustard, Beans

Importance of Vegetable Growing:

Importance of Vegetable Growing Vegetables are part of the day’s menu among Filipino families. Vegetables provide nutrients needed by the body. Vegetable-based diet promotes good health and longer life expectancy.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Soil The best soil for vegetable crops is the clay loam soil which contains sand, clay and organic matter in a reasonable balance.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Soil Clay soil is very difficult to dig when wet. It causes lumps that make preparation of fine seedbeds difficult.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Soil Sandy loam and gravelly loam soil is easy to work on. However, they lose moisture easily during dry weather.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Preparing the Garden Soil The main reason for preparing the soil is to provide good soil. Good soil means attaining physical, chemical and biological conditions ideal for optimum growth of plants, and therefore maximum yield.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Other Reasons of Preparing the Garden Soil: To mix the weed and other plant materials with the soil and make them part of it after decomposition. To level the land or lot for efficient and uniform irrigation.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Other Reasons of Preparing the Garden Soil: 3. To prepare the land conditions suitable for transplanting or seeding. 4. To kill weeds and prevent or minimize their growth.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Garden Tools and Equipment 1. Tools used for digging small and big plots crobar, pickmattock, grab hoe, shovel, spade, handtrowel

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Garden Tools and Equipment 2. Tools used for breaking and pulverizing plow and harrow

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Garden Tools and Equipment 3. Equipment for loading and transporting wheelbarrows, wooden box, water pail, sledge

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Home Lot Utilization Layout your home or backyard garden in such a way that there should be proper use of space.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Climate Typhoons and heavy rainfall during the wet season cause considerable damage to the growing crops. During dry season, the most common problem is the scarcity of water.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Temperature Different species of vegetable plants tend to have their own preference regarding temperature. Cool season crops perform best at nighttime when the temperature ranges from 40 to 50 0 F.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Temperature Warm season crops do their best at nighttime when temperature is 60 to 70 0 F.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Cool season vegetable crops carrots, onions, lettuce, cabbage, radish, potato Warm season vegetable crops beans, cucumber, melon, squash, tomato, eggplant pepper

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Light The amount of light that is received from the sun is very crucial to the development of any plant. The more light that is available, the more CO 2 and water the plants can be stored or utilized for vegetable growth.

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Light Long day plants only flower when days are long and nights are short. Example: radish lettuce, squash

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Light Short day plants only flower when days are short and nights are long. Example: sweet potato, lima beans

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing:

Factors to Consider in Vegetable Growing Light Day-neutral crops are not influenced by the lengths of day and night. Example: tomato and pepper

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Water It is the basic requirements in vegetable production. Too little or too much water is harmful to vegetable crops.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Nitrogen It is the main nutrient that must be supplied for the formation of protein by the plant.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Phosphorus It is required for the formation of starch and some protein by the plants and is usually necessary for normal flowering and fruit formation.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Potassium It helps reduce nitrates to amino acid form and is essential to proper development of roots and other underground tissue.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Calcium It is necessary for the formation of new plant cells. Its principal function is in controlling the acidity of the soil.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Sulfur It helps with the protein-formation process and the building of the cells by the plant.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Magnesium It plays an important part in the photosynthesis process since it is necessary for chlorophyll formation.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Iron It is necessary for the formation of chlorophyll, and shows somewhat similar evidence of a deficiency like magnesium.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Manganese It is another element involved with chlorophyll formation. It acts as catalyst in the process, and manganese deficiency in plants results in less sugar manufacture.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Borac It is important for tissue development and also aids in plant respiration.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Zinc It aids in both chlorophyll manufacture and in the process of photosunthesis.

Plant Requirements:

Plant Requirements Copper It is vital to the proper functioning of the oxidizing system of plants.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production A. PLANTING and SETTING 1. Direct Seeding The seeds are planted directly into the field or plots.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production A. PLANTING and SETTING 1. Transplanting The practice is to plant first the seeds in a seedbox or seeded to produce seedlings which are then transplanted into the garden plot or field.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production B. CULTIVATING and WEEDING 1. To prepare suitable seedbed 2. To give the soil a good structure 3. To kill the weeds

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production B. CULTIVATING and WEEDING 4. It is important for aerating the soil 5. It helps assure that your plants get full benefit of the water, nutrients, air and sunshine.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production C. APPLICATION of FERTILIZERS To supply the elements in the right proportion for the maximum development of vegetable crops.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production C. APPLICATION of FERTILIZERS Kinds: Organic-animal manure, green manure compost Inorganic 2.1 complete-N,P,K 2.2 incomplete-N,P;N,K; P,K

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production C. APPLICATION of FERTILIZERS Application Techniques: Broadcasting-involves scattering uniformly on the soil and for best results, incorporating into the soil. Can be done by hand or by the use of mechanical spreaders.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production C. APPLICATION of FERTILIZERS Application Techniques: 2. Sidedressing-the application of fertilizer beside or around the growing plants or crops planted in rows. Done immediately before cultivation so that the applied fertilizer will be covered with soil.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production C. APPLICATION of FERTILIZERS Application Techniques: 3. Band or localized-the fertilizers are placed in the soil mass where the seeds or seedlings are to be planted. Can be done by hand or by a special equipment.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production C. APPLICATION of FERTILIZERS Application Techniques: 4. Foliar Application-involves dissolving fertilizers in water and applying it by spray. It is widely used to correct the lack of essential chemical elements.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Essential to obtain good yields Common Insect Pests and their Controls 1. Aphids (plant lice)-Tiny soft-bodied insects that suck the sap out of plant causing stunted growth and cured leaves

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS To control aphids, use the pesticide, Malathion . Repeat 7 days intervals during severe infestation and 16 days for low infestation. Spray directly on leaves, flowers, and fruits.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS 2. Beetles-come in thousands of forms and they are a threat to plants at all stages of development. The adult beetles usually feed on foliage and fruit. Use folidol to control infestation of beetles at 30 days intervals. Spray directly on the leaves and stems.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS 3. Flea Hoppers-are greenish-black insects about the size and shape of an aphid. They suck the sap out of plants like the aphids. Use phosdrin and spray as flower buds appear at 7-14 days interval.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS 4. Cabbage caterpillar-the most destructive type and does considerable damage to cauliflower, broccoli, and cabbage. Use phosdrin at 7 days interval and spray on the plant.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Other causes of plant diseases 1. mineral deficiency 2. atmospheric impurities 3. moisture excesses 4. temperature extremes

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Common Plant Diseases: 1. Damping off – a decreased condition of seedling or cutting caused by fungi and marked by wilting and rotting.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Common Plant Diseases: Crowding, overwatering, and excessive humidity create ideal conditions for the development of a harmful fungus that weakens the plants so they topple over and die.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Common Plant Diseases: 2. Blossom End Rot – a leathery scar on the plant if deprived of moisture for any reason shortly after a period of rapid growth. For prevention, maintain adequate soil moisture and mulch the plants well.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Evidences of Disease Infestation 1. Spot on leaves and stalk 2. Mildew form powdery coatings on plants and are most prevalent during wet seasons or where air circulation is impaired.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Evidences of Disease Infestation 3. Rust causes reddish-brown spores and pustules to develop on stems and leaves. 4. Molds are fungus growth that appear as whitish spots or velvety areas that gradually cause leaves to turn yellow.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Evidences of Disease Infestation 5. Wilt are infections that cause plants to droop, turn yelloww, develop streaks and eventually become stunted or die.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Evidences of Disease Infestation 6. Swelling and contortions of plant roots indicate clun root disease, which can cause the plant to wilt and become foul-smelling.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Other Methods of Disease and Pest Control 1. Growing resistant crop varieties 2. Following hygeinic practices so that diseases do not reach epidemic proportions

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. PEST and DISEASE CONTROLS Other Methods of Disease and Pest Control 3. Growing the crop in the most possible way (good manuring, weed control, seed bed preparation and so on), so that it grows strongly and is more able to overcome disease attack.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. HARVESTING AND POST-HARVESTING PRACTICES It involves proper ways or practices in gathering food crops. It also includes the right time to harvest and what to do after harvest.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. HARVESTING AND POST-HARVESTING PRACTICES Leafy vegetables- harvested while they are fresh, tender and green Fruit crops- harvested with the same conditions as the leafy vegetables

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. HARVESTING AND POST-HARVESTING PRACTICES Root crops- harvested before they are fully matured or become fibrous

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. HARVESTING AND POST-HARVESTING PRACTICES Harvesting Techniques: Gather vegetables in the morning. Avoid damaging and injuring vegetables while harvesting.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. HARVESTING AND POST-HARVESTING PRACTICES Harvesting Techniques: 3. Gathering of garden fruit crops must be packed and sorted out in its own box or container right after harvest.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. HARVESTING AND POST-HARVESTING PRACTICES Harvesting Techniques: 4. Crops of the same stage of ripeness should be packed together to avoid rotting. 5. All root crops should be washed after harvest.

Methods in Vegetable Production:

Methods in Vegetable Production D. HARVESTING AND POST-HARVESTING PRACTICES Harvesting Techniques: 6. To maintain the freshness and nutritive value of the vegetables in cooking, pick them only at the time they are needed befroe cooking time.

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