Wikis

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Elizabeth Scroggs Diffusion and Integration of Technology EDUC 8841 Dr. Watson:

Elizabeth Scroggs Diffusion and Integration of Technology EDUC 8841 Dr. Watson

What is a Wiki?:

What is a Wiki? “A wiki is a Web site that allows users to add and update content on the site using their own Web browser. This is made possible by Wiki software that runs on the Web server. Wikis end up being created mainly by a collaborative effort of the site visitors. A great example of a large wiki is the Wikipedia, a free encyclopedia in many languages that anyone can edit” (Tech Terms, 2005).

Ward’s reasoning for wikis::

Ward’s reasoning for wikis: The reasoning behind the development of the wiki by Ward Cunningham was to facilitate communication between individual programmers. He wanted to make a forum that provided an easier method to share ideas and information and which allowed all users to be able to edit and update the postings. This provided a method for collaboration that was not dependent on everyone being in the same place at the same time.

Need::

Need: “The practices of participating in wikis, and social software more generally, could potentially provide a structure supporting a community of practice model of learning as individuals come together , and develop a repertoire of shared practices, bringing new experiences to the group and learning from the group’s existing practices” (Grant, 2006).

Research::

Research: The history of wikis dates from 1994, when Ward Cunningham invented the concept and gave it its name (he gave the name " WikiWikiWeb " to both the wiki, which ran on his company's website at c2.com, and the wiki software that powered it).

Research continue::

Research continue: T he creation of true wikis only became possible with the development of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s. c2.com thus became the first wiki, or a website with pages that can be edited via the browser, with a version history for each page.

Development of wiki software, 2001–2003::

Development of wiki software, 2001–2003: Until 2001, wikis were virtually unknown outside of the restricted circles of computer programmers. Wikis were introduced to the general public by the success of Wikipedia, a free content encyclopedia that can be edited by anyone.

Development continued::

Development continued: After 2002, the number of wiki engines continued to grow, as new commercial products were introduced, and as new open-source projects forked off of existing ones.

Development continued::

Development continued: As they developed, wikis incorporated many of the features used on other websites and blogs, including: *support for various wiki markup styles *optional use of external editors *support for plugins and custom extensions *use of RSS feeds *integrated email discussion *precise access control

Why Wikis?:

Why Wikis? Peer-to-peer collaboration Project-oriented learning Connection to community More meaningful learning

Why Wikis?:

Why Wikis? Today's digital natives (our students) expect to communicate, learn and explore their world using technology 24/7. To keep up with them, to meet their learning preferences and to engage them in the learning process, we need to make schools relevant to them. We cannot do that without keeping up with technology and Web 2.0.” – A Curriculum Director in New York Leadership for Web 2.0 in Education: Promise and Reality (2009) http://www.cosn.org/Portals/7/docs/Web%202.0/CoSN%20Report%20042809Final%20w-cover.pdf

Adoption:

Adoption

Timeline of communication channels of the innovation process:

Timeline of communication channels of the innovation process 1994 Ward Cunningham started developing the WikiWikiWeb . 1995 Cunningham introduces the wiki to the World-Wide Web. 2000’s the wiki is adopted by society. 2001 Jimmy Wales introduces several different versions of Wikipedia. 2007 the wiki enters the Oxford English Dictionary.

Stage I: Knowledge:

Stage I: Knowledge Individual board members know via various routes Characteristics of the Decision-Making Unit: Upper to Middle Class Various personality traits/types Technology savvy Communications occur via various variables: face to face, email, Skype, telephone, text messages, and interoffice mail

Stage II: Persuasion :

Stage II: Persuasion It is hoped that the board will form a favorable attitude toward the use of Wikis as an instructional tool to bridge learning both inside and outside of the classroom. Perceived Characteristics of the Innovation: Wikis are considered advantageous to those who are already using them as a means to collaborate beyond “the walls” of a classroom. However, being that they are relatively new to education, they are not easily observable in classrooms at this time.

Stage III: Decision :

Stage III: Decision When the board decides to approve the use of Wikis inside the classroom based on experiences and observations.

Stage IV: Implementation:

Stage IV: Implementation Wikis will be used in classrooms throughout the county as a means for both students and teachers to collaborate on various projects.

Stage V: Confirmation:

Stage V: Confirmation After a predetermined amount of time, the board will review the decision to use Wikis and the benefits in doing so across the county.

S Curve::

S Curve:

Innovators & Early Adopters:

Innovators & Early Adopters Technology teachers New teachers Young teachers Tech savvy students Curriculum developers

Strategies for Adoption of Wikis for Innovators and Early Adopters:

Strategies for Adoption of Wikis for Innovators and Early Adopters Adequate training and support Connection to standards Research data to support learning benefits Collaborative uses and benefits

Late Adopters and Laggards:

Late Adopters and Laggards Older, established teachers Students/Teachers who are uncomfortable with technology Administrators/Teachers who are hesitant to change and are afraid of using the internet as a platform for discussions (especially if they are afraid students will veer off topic).

Strategies for Adoption of Wikis for Late Adopters and Laggards:

Strategies for Adoption of Wikis for Late Adopters and Laggards Adequate training on using and understanding Wikis Professional development opportunities for teachers to share how Wikis are being utilized in their classrooms Adequate time for teachers to become comfortable

Attributes for Reaching Critical Mass:

Attributes for Reaching Critical Mass Relative Advantage Complexity Trialability

Relative Advantage:

Relative Advantage Supports writing standards Supports multiple learning modes Supports multiple learning perspectives

Complexity:

Complexity Relatively short learning process Easy to use and modify Integration can be scaled

Trialability:

Trialability Integration can be limited at first Early adopters can be mentors to late adopters Adaptability to individual academics

Centralized or Decentralized Approach for Adoption of Innovation :

Centralized or Decentralized Approach for Adoption of Innovation Centralized approach targeting directors Centralized approach targeting department chairs Decentralized approach targeting teachers

Key Change Agents:

Key Change Agents Technology Educational Organizations Directors Departments Chairs Innovative teachers

Change Agent Roles:

Change Agent Roles Establish information exchange networks Influence behavior change Reinforce behavioral change Establish process for problem resolution

Innovation Critical Mass:

Innovation Critical Mass Critical mass attained in private and business domains Introduce innovation to department chairs Introduce innovation to science and technology groups

Role of Champion:

Role of Champion Recognize the need for improvement and communicate those needs such as: improve writing skills improve collaboration skills improve critical thinking skills improve technology skills

Role of Champion :

Role of Champion Identify and communicate how the use of wikis meet those needs such as: provides opportunity for writing provides opportunity for collaboration provides opportunity for critical thinking

Remember…:

Remember… Goal of Education: academic knowledge applied learning performance skills

References:

References California State Board of Education. (2009). Vision, mission, and goals. http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/ag/ag/vmgoals.asp Chao, J. & Parker, K. (2007). Wiki as a teaching tool. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects , 3, 57-71. Retrieved from http://ijello.org/Volume3/IJKLOv3p057-072Parker284.pdf

References:

References COSN. (2009). Leadership for web 2.0 in education:Promise & reality. http://www.cosn.org/Portals/7/docs/Web%202.0/CoSN%20Report%20042809Final%20w-cover.pdf Cress, U., & Kimmerle , J. (2008). A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 3 , 105-122.

References:

References Rogers, E. (2003) Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.) . New York: Free Press. Usluel , Y. & Mazman , S. (2009). Adoption of Web 2.0 tools in distance education. International Journalof Human Sciences , 6(2), 89-98. Retrieved from: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

References:

References Wikipedia. (2010). Wiki. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki#History Zeinstejer , R. (2008). The Wiki Revolution: A Challenge to Traditional Education. TESL-EJ,11 (4).

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