WoongkiLee-Triangle

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Triangle - The fire that changed America - :

PAD 5398 E M Planning and Policy Woongki Lee Triangle - The fire that changed America -

Situations around 1911:

Political aspect - Tammany Hall , political machine had dominated New York for half a century - The Hall was supported by bribes. * The key to the corruption was Police Situations around 1911

Situations-cont:

Garment Industry - Employed the most workers - had plenty of low-paid workers due to immigrants - Manufacturers worried not about workers’ safety but about labor strife and strong union Situations-cont

Situations-cont:

Labor Movement - Hard to organize workers and also win victory over owners supported by Police - aimed at approval of union, Fifty-four hours work a week, Pay increase - Ultimately, won a kind of victory through internal unity and external supports Situations-cont

The Triangle Fire:

When: 4:40PM, March 25, 1911 - 5:15 PM: under control - 6:10 PM: extinguished Where: scrap bin under cutter’s table on the 8 th floor of Asch Building Casualties: 146 dead, 71 injured Cause: match or cigarette butt unextinguished The Triangle Fire

Factors caused catastrophe :

Negligence of public officials - Ignored the letter from Prof. Francis Aymar - Failed to follow up the architect’s promise The door to Washington Place Side locked on the 9 th floor Badly conceived, designed, and installed fire escape No fire ladder that could reach the place of fire Factors caused catastrophe

Blanck and Harris:

Owners of the Triangle - Jewish Immigrants - Started business with sweatshop Experienced fires in their factories - Apr 15 & Nov 1, 1902, Asch Building - Apr 1907 & 1910, Diamond Waist Co. * They were charged but acquitted Blanck and Harris

Aftermath(Reform):

The Tammany Twins, Robert F. Wagner, Alfred E. Smith led the whole processes of legislation On June 30, 1911, Factory Investigating Commission created with unprecedented powers Aftermath(Reform)

Aftermath-Cont:

Factory Investigating Commission - Composed of progressives and played a major role in pushing reform -1911, proposed 15 new laws and enacted 8 laws - 1912, organized visits to plants and mills - 1913, pushed through 25 bills, and more fire safety laws * The fire became the root of New Deal Aftermath-Cont

The fire as Focusing Event:

The fire of Triangle Waist Company changed and corrected practices such as lack of safety consciousness, ignorance of human rights, and corrupted political system Also, showed that the will of the organized public can decide and control most issues in given times. The fire as Focusing Event

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