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Primary v. Secondary Sources:

Primary v. Secondary Sources Primary law sources: are statements of law by governmental institutions, such as the courts or legislatures consists of case law, statutes, constitutions, administrative decisions, rules of court, and regulations may be binding (mandatory) or persuasive authority 1

Primary v. Secondary Sources:

Primary v. Secondary Sources Secondary law sources: are statements about the law by legal experts explain, interpret, develop, locate, or update primary law are never binding (mandatory) authority may be persuasive authority 2

Examples of Secondary Sources:

Examples of Secondary Sources Treaties Hornbooks Restatements Academic journals, a.k.a. law reviews 3


4 IRAC Issue Rule Application (discuss the facts and apply the rule) Conclusion C-IRAC = conclusion, issue, rule, application, conclusion.

Legal Language:

Legal Language Get a good dictionary Words may have specialized meanings in legal documents and multiple meanings Online Law dictionaries: FindLaw ( ( 5

Legal Citations:

Legal Citations Example: Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California , 551 P.2d 334 (Cal. 1976). 551 is the volume number 334 is the page number P.2d is the abbreviation for the Pacific Reporter, Second Series 6

Help with Citations:

Help with Citations Bluebook ALWD Cornell’s online guide Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations 7


Questions? Please feel free to email or message me with any and all questions, comments, concerns you have from this lesson. 8