reported speech explanation

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REPORTED SPEECH : 

REPORTED SPEECH

1. Introductory clause in the present tense (e.g. he says): : 

1. Introductory clause in the present tense (e.g. he says): No backshift of tenses Personal pronouns must be changed ( I - ® he/she etc.) Expressions of time and place are not changed Example: Peter says, "I want to talk to Mary tomorrow." ® Peter says that he wants to talk to Mary tomorrow.

2. Introductory clause in the past tense (e.g. he said): : 

2. Introductory clause in the past tense (e.g. he said): Backshift of tenses Personal pronouns must be changed ( I - ® he/she etc.) Expressions of time and place are often changed Example: My father said, "I'm sure I saw you here last week." ® My father said that he was sure that he had seen him there the week before.

Direct Speech / Reported Speech : 

Direct Speech / Reported Speech

IMPORTANT!! : 

IMPORTANT!! Important:  will   ®  would     can   ®   could     may  ®   might    shall® should But:  would  ®  would could   ® could might   ® might   should ® should

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE USUALLY CHANGE: : 

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE USUALLY CHANGE:

3. Personal Pronouns / possessive determiners : 

3. Personal Pronouns / possessive determiners

4. Questions in Reported Speech : 

4. Questions in Reported Speech

!! Mind the word order: : 

!! Mind the word order: " in direct questions auxiliary/subject/main verb : Can I go out? " in reported questions subject/(auxiliary)/main verb : if I can go out

5. Commands in reported speech. : 

5. Commands in reported speech.

!! Always think about the logic of the situation. : 

!! Always think about the logic of the situation. For ex.: The simple present can remain unchanged in reported speech to show that something is always the case: John said, "School with us starts at 8.10." ®He told me that school with them starts at 8.10.

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