Grammar Book

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Grammar Book :

Grammar B ook Elijah Holman

Table of Contents :

Table of Contents 1. Nationalities 2. Stem-Changing Verbs 3. Para 4. Adjectives 5. Object Pronoun Placement 6. DOP 7. IOP 8. ser vs. estar 9. - ísimo (a), and g/c/z* 10. Verbs like gustar 11. Affirmative and Negative Words 12. pero vs. sino * 13. DOP/IOP/SE 14. Reflexive verbs 15. Tú commands affirmative + negative + irregulars 16. Los adverbios-mente 17. Deber + other modal verbs 18. Past participles as adjectives 19. Preterite 20. Present progressive


estadounidense Nationalities mexicano guatemalteco salvadoreño hondureño nicaragüense costarricense Peruano Colombiano Ecuatoriano Boliviano Chileno Argentino Paraguayo Uruguayo Cubano Dominicano Puertorriqueño venezolano

Stem Changing Verbs:

Stem Changing Verbs O to UE I to IE U to Ue E to I Use the boot to put the word you are stem changing in the yo , tu , usted , nosotros, vosotros, and ustedes form . Nosotros and vosotros are outside the boot so they don’t get stem changed, but everything else does.


Para You use it when you express doing something. Para means For It can also be used to give the destination of something. It can also give purpous to something.

Adjectives :

Adjectives Adjectives are used to describe something. Rules include, if it ends with a constanent put es at the end, or if it ends in e add an s Put the adjective after the word

Object Pronoun Placement:

Object Pronoun Placement When it is a conjugated verb the pronoun comes before the verb. When there is a pronoun with an infinitive then it goes after the infinitive or before the verb.

DOP(Direct Object Pronoun):

DOP(Direct Object Pronoun) The direct object pronoun comes before the verb. In the case of infinitives and present participles you either can attach the direct object pronoun to the end of the verb, or you can put it before the first verb.

IOP (Indirect Object Pronoun):

IOP (Indirect Object Pronoun) Indirect objects are nouns that tell who/whom or for what/for whom They are often followed by name noun or pronoun

Ser VS. Estar:

Ser VS. Estar Ser Place of origin, Possesesion , What something is made of, Time and date, Where or when something takes place, Nationalities, Occupation, Characteristics, Generalizations. Estar I s used when it comes to Health Location, Physical states, emotional states, Weather expressions, ongoing actions. Ser comes after de when showing possession, origin or what something is made of.


ísimo (a ) When expressing extreme adjectives drop the vowel and add a form of ísimo

Verbs Like Gustar :

Verbs Like Gustar Examples Faltar Doler Conjugation Verbs.

Affirmative and Negative Words:

Affirmative and Negative Words When you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation use an affirmative or negative word. Affirmative words Algo =Something Alguein =Someone Alguno =Same Siempre =Always Tabien =Also Negative words Nada=Nothing Nadie =No one Ninguno =None Nunca =Never Tampoco =Neither

Pero vs. Sino:

Pero vs. Sino Pero means but Sino means but rather We use " pero " to join two contrasting idea when the second phrase does not negate the first. Sino is used generally in negative sentences in which the second phrase negates or corrects the first.


DOP/IOP/SE Dop = me, te , la, nos , os , los/ las Iop = me, te , le, nos , os , les Se= me, te , se, nos , os , se

Reflexive verbs:

Reflexive verbs To describe people doing things for themselves use reflexive verbs. Put a reflexive pronoun before it, and take out the se. Me te se nos os se

Tú commands affirmative + negative + irregulars:

Tú commands affirmative + negative + irregulars Affirmative TU commands are used to tell friends, family members, or young people to do something or to give instructions. Negative TÚ commands is used to tell friends, family members, or young people what NOT to do. - es : Negative TÚ command of -AR verbs - as : Negative TÚ command of -ER and -IR verbs Irregularities only occur with affirmative tú commands. As with all other verbs, to form negative informal commands with these verbs, use the " tú " form of the present subjunctive . Di, haz , ve , pon , sal , se, ten, ven

Los Adverbios-mente:

Los Adverbios-mente Basically like adding ly End adjectives with –a when adding – mente For adjectives with –o or –a endings add – mente to the feminine form. You must keep the accent when an adjective is changed to an adverb.

Deber + other modal verbs:

Deber + other modal verbs Deber = Should/ought to Use a conjugated form of deber with the infinitive of another verb. Debo Debes Debe Debemos Debeis Deben

Past Participles as Adjectives:

Past Participles as Adjectives To form the past participle, simply drop the infinitive ending (- ar , - er , - ir ) and add -ado (for - ar verbs) or - ido (for - er , - ir verbs ).

Present progressive:

Present progressive Used to describe actions in progress. Estoy = Esperando Estás = Esperando Está = Esperando Estamos = Esperando Estáis = Espersndo Están = Esperando When you use pronouns with present progressive, you can put them in one of two places. Put it before the conjugated form of estar You can also attach it to the end of the present participle.