English Lexicography

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English lexicography :

English Lexicography

English lexicography :

Lexicography is the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries. It is the oldest part of lexicology. In Lexicology, word is a part of the system. In Lexicography, word is an individual unit in respect of its meaning and use from the practical point of its use by the reader of the dictionary for learning the language or comprehending texts in it or for any other purpose. The lexicographers are mostly guided by the principle of convenience in retrieval of the data and arrange words usually in alphabetical order.

English lexicography :

D ictionary is a book that lists the words of a language in a certain order (usually alphabetical) and gives their meanings or equivalent words in a different language. Latin forms ‘ dictionaries ’ or ‘ dictionarium ’, from ‘ dictio ’ ‘action of saying’ or ‘word’, itself from the verb ‘ dicere ’, ‘say’. According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) ‘ dictonarius ’ was used for the first time in 1225 by the poet and grammarian Joannes de Garlandia , or John of Garland(e) (1195 - 1272).

English lexicography :

Old English Period 600-700 AD glosses of religious books the Leiden Glossary the Epinal Glossary the Erfurt Glossary the Corpus Glossary (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge)

English lexicography :

Old English glossaries https://archive.org/details/corpuspinalerf00lindiala The Leiden Glossary is a collection of smaller glossaries (sets of glosses) under the name of the treatise from which it was extracted. The words are in the order in which they happened to come in the treatise without any further . The Epinal Glossary has advanced to first-letter order: all the A-words come together, followed by all the B-words and so on to Z. In the Epinal Glossary there were only a few English words, in the Corpus Glossary their number increased.

English lexicography :

Aelfric´s GLOSSARY, 1000 AD Aelfric, abbot of Eynsham monastery near Oxford, compiled a glossary that was ordered thematically. It was a list of Latin words, with Old English equivalents with such topics as ‘God, heaven, angels, sun, moon, earth, sea, herbs, trees, weapons, metals, precious stones’.

English lexicography :

15 th century Six important vocabularies of the fifteenth century are printed by Wright- Wuelcker , most of them arranged under subject headings. About the middle of the century, also, was compiled the famous Medulla Grammatice , designated as ‘the first Latin-English dictionary’. Medulla Grammatice or Medulla Grammaticae ("the Marrow of Grammar") is collection of fifteenth century Latin-Middle English glossaries in the British Museum. The English Dictionary, like the English Constitution, is the creation of no one man, and of no one age; it is a growth that has slowly developed itself down the ages. Its beginnings lie far back in times almost prehistoric. And these beginnings themselves, although the English Dictionary of to-day is lineally developed from them, were neither Dictionaries, nor even English. As to their language, they were in the first place and principally Latin: as to their substance, they consisted, in large part at least, of glosses. They were Latin, because at the time to which we refer, the seventh and eighth centuries of our era, Latin was in Western Europe the only language of books, the learning of Latin the portal to all learning James Murray

English lexicography :

The first English monolingual dictionaries Robert Cawdrey A Table Alphabetical of Hard Usuall English Wordes (1604) John Bullokar An English Expositor (1616) Henry Cockeram English Dictionarie (1623)

English lexicography :

18 th century A New English Dictionary by John Kersey (1702). The lexicon included 28,000 entries of general vocabulary. Nathaniel Bailey’s An Universal Etymological Dictionary of 1721 40,000 headwords of everyday general vocabulary, unusual words and etymology.

English lexicography :

Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language of 1755. the landmark in establishing the role of lexicographer as an authority on the correct spelling, pronunciation and definitions 114,000 citations to prove definitions, connotations; commentaries if he doubted the usage a corpus of authentic literary texts by the best, reputable authors the meaning of the words in chronological order, from the literal to the figurative, metaphorical, stylistic meaning

English lexicography :

A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles”(NED) In 1858, one of the members of the English philological society Dr. Trench raised the question of compiling such a dictionary, which would include all the words existing in the English language, irrespective of their style. The first volume was published in 1884, the last one - in 1928. A supplement appeared in 1933. The dictionary was called “A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles” (NED) and consisted of twelve volumes. About one thousand people took part in collecting the material for it. In 1933, it was republished under the title “The Oxford English Dictionary” and consisted of thirteen volumes.

English lexicography :

The Oxford english dictionary (OED ) The title The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series/ In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. Since 2000, a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately a third of which is now complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will probably only appear in electronic form; Nigel Portwood , chief executive of Oxford University Press, feels it unlikely that it will ever be printed.

English lexicography :

Longman dictionary of contemporary English ( ldoce ) Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) was first published by Longman in 1978. The latest version of Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English is the sixth edition. The premium website was revised during 2014 and 2015 and offers over a million corpus examples, exceeding that of the paper version and also supplying sound files for every word and 88,000 example sentences, along with various tools for study, teaching, examinations and grammar. The gratis LDOCE online was updated to its current layout in 2008 and offers a search (with spelling assistance), definitions; collocations; many examples and pictures.

English lexicography :

Cambridge dictionaries Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words, phrases, and meanings. It is suitable for learners at CEF levels B2-C2. First edition first published in 2003 Second edition first published in 2005 Third edition first published in 2008 Fourth edition first published in 2013

English lexicography :

dictionary A dictionary is “a reference tool, in a paper or electronic form, that provides information on the meaning and use of a representative sample of the lexical items of a language or of a variety of a language, where each item is treated in a separate paragraph and all the paragraphs are ordered for easy consultation” [ Bejoint 2010; 34]. A dictionary is not only used as a reference work, it also serves as a kind of “storage facility, a storeroom for a language in which we can find much of what once existed and which exists today” [ Sterkenburg 2003; 6].

English lexicography :

Types of Dictionaries Thing Books Word Books Linguistic (all words of the language) – spelling, pronunciation, meaning, examples of use Encyclopaedic (words of designative character) – extensive extralinguistic information

English lexicography :

From what type of dictionaries are these entries ? CAT (family Felidae ) - any of a group of carnivorous mammals that includes the true cats—lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, puma, and domestic cat—and the cheetah . Cats typically have soft fur often strikingly patterned. See also domestic cat . The history of the cat family can be traced through the fossil record to the Late Eocene Epoch cat [ kæt ] 1. small , domestic, fur-covered animal often kept as a pet, to catch mice, etc. (=wild cat) any animal of the group that includes tigers, lions, panthers and leopards. Bell the cat see bell (2). Let the cat out of the bag see bag (1). Like a cat on hot bricks - very nervous or jumpy …

English lexicography :

Overlapping information the word origin in encyclopedic dictionaries; the encyclopedic definitions in linguistic dictionaries; encyclopedic parts (appendices) in linguistic dictionaries, e.g. geographical names, names and dates of birth and life of famous people. American dictionaries tend to be encyclopedic; British dictionaries tend to exclude the extralinguistic information from the entries.

English lexicography :

Types of dictionaries Criteria for classification: The nature (scope) of word lists: general (unrestricted) and restricted dictionaries. The kind of information: explanatory vs. specialized (pronouncing , etymological, ideographic dictionaries, etc ). The language in which the information is given: monolingual vs. bilingual dictionaries. The prospective user, e.g. advanced learners of English; children, students , etc. Diachronic vs. synchronic Hard vs. soft dictionaries

English lexicography :

thesaurus In thesaurus , there is no separate entry for each word. The word occurs simply as part of a list. The words are organized not on the basis of form but on the basis of meaning (not grammatical classes but semantic classes). Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases by Peter Mark Roget, a co-author of the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Thesaurus, begun in 1810 and published in 1852, contained about 40,000 words. It has been re-edited several times since then in many different forms, paper or electronic, with additions and deletions but the same organization. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/thesaurus/

English lexicography :

English lexicography Elena Kruglikova Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk e-mail: [email protected]u

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