Grammar Book Final

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Libro de Gramática:

Libro de Gramática Ema Keeton

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Preterite Imperfect Por y Para Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Commands Subjunctive Verbs of Will and Influence Verbs of Emotion Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial Conjunctions Tu Commands Nosotros Commands Subjunctive in Adjective Clause Past Participles as Adjectives Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Conditional Past S ubjunctive

Preterite:

Preterite Cucaracha Verbs, Spock Verbs, J- Verbs Forma “yo” tener tuve estar estuve ir fui ser fui poner puse poder pude traer traje hacer hice haber hube saber supe querer quise decir dije venir vine ver vei dar di - ar - er / - ir e í aste iste ó ió amos imos aron ieron e imos iste isteis o ieron Triggers un día una vez dos veces el año pasado hace un mes el lunes el tres de abril a las ocho ayer anteayer anoche

Imperfect:

Imperfect - ar aba ábamos abas abais aba aban - er / - ir ía íamos ías íais í a ían Triggers todos los días a menudo frecuentemente cada día siempre nunca los lunes generalmente mientras muchas veces a veces de vez en cuando rara vez Give background events in a story Habitual or repeated action Age Time/ date Event or action in progress No definite beginning or end Physical characteristics Descriptions/ feelings Mental or emotional states Interrupted activity ( cuando )

Por y Para:

Por y Para Por Para Motion or general location Destination Duration of an action Deadline or specific time in future Object of a search Purpose Means by which something is done Infinitive Exchange or substitution Recipient of Something Unit of Measure Comparisons or opinions Employment

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns:

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Mi (s) Nuestro (a/ os /as) Tu (s) Vuestro (a/ os /as) Su(s) Su(s) Mío (a) Nuestro (a) Tuyo (a) Vuestro (a) Suyo (a) Suyo (a) Míos (as) Nuestros (as) Tuyos (as) Vuestros (as) Suyos (as) Suyos (as)

Commands:

Commands Tú Usted / Ustedes Affirmative Drop the “s” ( di, haz , ve , pon , sal , sé, ten, ven ) Put it in the “ yo ” form and change to opposite vowel Negative Put it in the “ yo ” form and change to opposite vowel, add an “s” Put it in the “ yo ” form and change to opposite vowel

Subjunctive:

Subjunctive Dos cláusulas La palabra “ que ” Un verbo “especial” Dos sujetos diferentes Common verbs and expressions of emotion Alegrarse (de) To be happy Esperar To hope; To wish Gustar To like Molestar To bother Sentir ( e:ie ) To be sorry Soprender To surprise Temer To be worried Tener miedo (de) To be afraid of Es extraño It’s strange Es una lástima It’s a shame Es ridículo It’s ridiculous Es terrible It’s terrible Es triste It’s sad Ojalá ( que ) I hope that; I wish that

Verbs of Will and Influence:

Verbs of Will and Influence

Verbs of Emotion:

Verbs of Emotion Alegrarse (de) To be happy Esperar To hope; To wish Gustar To like Molestar To bother Sentir To be sorry Sorprender To surprise Temer To be worried Tener miedo (de) To be afraid of Es extraño It’s strange Es un lástima It’s a shame Es ridículo It’s ridiculous Es terrible It’s terrible Es triste It’s sad Ojalá I hope When the main clause of a sentence expresses an emotion or feeling, use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause Use the infinitive after an expression of emotion when there is no change of subject Ojalá que is always followed by the subjunctive s

Doubt, Disbelief, Denial:

Doubt, Disbelief, Denial Expressions of doubt, disbelief, or denial Dudar To doubt Negar To deny No creer Not to believe No estar seguro (de) Not to be sure of No es cierto It’s not true No es seguro It’s not certain No es verdad It’s not true Es imposible It’s impossible Es improbable It’s improbable No es posible It’s not possible No es probable It’s not probable The subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause when there is a change of subjeect and the main clause implies uncertainty Es probable and es posible trigger the subjunctive Use the infinitive after an expression of uncertainty, doubt, disbelief, or denial when there is no change of subject Quizás and tal ves are usually followed by the subjunctive Use the indicitive when the main clause expresses certainty Creer is followed by the indicitive No creer is followed by the subjunctive

Conjunctions:

Conjunctions Conjunctions that require the subjunctive A menos que Unless Antes (de) que Before Con tal (de) que Provided that En caso (de) que In case that Para que So that Sin que Without Conjunctions used with the subjunctive or indicative Cuando When Después (de) que After En cuanto As soon as Hasta que Until An pronto como As soon as Use the indicative if the verb expresses an action that habitually happens or happened in the past Use the subjunctive is the main clause expresses a future action or command Use the infinitive after antes de, para, sin when there is no change in subject

Tu Commands:

Tu Commands Affirmative tú commands usually have the same form as the usted form of the present indicative Negative tú commands have the same form as the tú form of the present subjunctive Infinitive Affirmative Negative Cuidar Cuida No cuides Tocar Toca No toques Temer Teme To temas Volver Vuelve No vuelvas Insistir Insiste No insistas pedir pide No pidas Irregular tú commands Decir Di Hacer Haz Ir Ve Poner Pon Salir Sal Ser Sé Tener Ten Venir Ven

Nosotros Commands:

Nosotros Commands Both affirmative and negative nosotros commands are generally formed by using the nosotros subjunctive form Object pronouns are attached to the end of affirmative nosotros commands, and an accent is added When nos or se is attached, the final s of the command verb is dropped (mono verbs) Ir Vamos No vayamos Vámonos No nos vayamos

Subjunctive in Adjective Clause:

Subjunctive in Adjective Clause The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause that refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that either doesn’t exist or whose existence is uncertain or indefinite The indicative is used when the adjective clause refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that is clearly known or certain Indicative Subjunctive Necesito el libro que tiene información sobre Venezuela. Necesito un libro que tenga información sobre Venezuela. Quiero vivir en esta casa que tiene jardín. Quiero vivir en una casa que tenga jardín. En mi barrio, hay una heladería que vende helado de mango. En mi barrio, no hay ninguna heladería que venda helado de mango

Past Participles as Adjectives:

Past Participles as Adjectives - ar verbs end in -ado - er /- ir verbs end in - ido To be used as adjectives, the verb estar comes before the adjective The past participles of - er and - ir verbs whose stems end in -a, -e, or -o have an accent mark on the i in - ido Caer Caído Creer Creído Leer Leído Oír Oído Reír Reído Sonreír Sonreído Traer Traído

Present Perfect:

Present Perfect The present perfect is used to talk about what someone has done It is formed with the p resent tense of haber and a past participle he hemos has ha han Haber + Past Participle - ar verbs end in -ado - er /- ir verbs end in - ido Irregular Past Participles Abrir Abierto Cubir Cubierto Decir Dicho Escribir Escrito Hacer Hecho Morir Muerto Resolver Resuelto Poner Puesto Romper Roto Ver Visto Volver Vuelto Ir Ido

Past Perfect:

Past Perfect The past perfect is used to talk about what someone has done or what has occurred before another past action. Imperfect form of Haber + Past Participle Había Habíamos Habías Había Habían - ar verbs end in -ado - er /-ir verbs end in - ido Irregular Past Participles Abrir Abierto Cubir Cubierto Decir Dicho Escribir Escrito Hacer Hecho Morir Muerto Resolver Resuelto Poner Puesto Romper Roto Ver Visto Volver Vuelto Ir Ido It is often used with the word ya , which means already

Future Tense:

Future Tense é emos ás á án Irregulares Decir Dir - Hacer Har - Poder Podr - Poner Pondr - Querer Querr - Saber Sabr - Salir Saldr - Tener Tendr - Venir Vendr - The future tense endings for ar / er /ir verbs are the same The future of hay is habrá

Conditional Tense:

Conditional Tense ía íamos ías ía ían Irregulares Decir Dir - Hacer Har - Poder Podr - Poner Pondr - Querer Querr - Saber Sabr - Salir Saldr - Tener Tendr - Venir Vendr - The conditional tense endings for ar / er /ir verbs are the same The future of hay is habriá

Past Subjunctive:

Past Subjunctive ra ramos ras ra ran Put the verb in the usted form of the preterite . Then drop the - ron ending and add the following endings. Irregulars dar die- decir dije - estar estuvie - hacer hicie - ir fue - ser fue - poder pudie - poner pusie - querer quisie - saber supie - tener tuvie - venir vinie - Stem Changing Verbs preferir prefirie - repetir repitie - dormir durmie - conducir conduje - creer creye - destruir destruye - oír oye -