Grammar Book

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Libro de Gramática:

Libro de Gramática Ema Keeton

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Preterite Imperfect Por y Para Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Commands Subjunctive Verbs of Will and Influence Verbs of Emotion Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial Conjunctions

Preterite:

Preterite Cucaracha Verbs, Spock Verbs, J- Verbs Forma “ yo ” tener tuve estar estuve ir fui ser fui poner puse poder pude traer traje hacer hice haber hube saber supe querer quise decir dije venir vine ver vei dar di - ar - er / - ir e í aste iste ó ió amos imos aron ieron e imos iste isteis o ieron Triggers un día una vez dos veces el año pasado hace un mes el lunes el tres de abril a las ocho ayer anteayer anoche

Imperfect:

Imperfect - ar aba ábamos abas abais aba aban - er / - ir ía íamos ías íais í a ían Triggers todos los días a menudo frecuentemente cada día siempre nunca los lunes generalmente mientras muchas veces a veces de vez en cuando rara vez Give background events in a story Habitual or repeated action Age Time/ date Event or action in progress No definite beginning or end Physical characteristics Descriptions/ feelings Mental or emotional states Interrupted activity ( cuando )

Por y Para:

Por y Para Por Para Motion or general location Destination Duration of an action Deadline or specific time in future Object of a search Purpose Means by which something is done Infinitive Exchange or substitution Recipient of Something Unit of Measure Comparisons or opinions Employment

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns:

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Mi (s) Nuestro (a/ os /as) Tu (s) Vuestro (a/ os /as) Su(s) Su(s) Mío (a) Nuestro (a) Tuyo (a) Vuestro (a) Suyo (a) Suyo (a) Míos (as) Nuestros (as) Tuyos (as) Vuestros (as) Suyos (as) Suyos (as)

Commands:

Commands Tú Usted / Ustedes Affirmative Drop the “s” ( di, haz , ve , pon , sal , sé , ten, ven ) Put it in the “ yo ” form and change to opposite vowel Negative Put it in the “ yo ” form and change to opposite vowel, add an “s” Put it in the “ yo ” form and change to opposite vowel

Subjunctive:

Subjunctive Dos cláusulas La palabra “ que ” Un verbo “especial” Dos sujetos diferentes Common verbs and expressions of emotion Alegrarse (de) To be happy Esperar To hope; To wish Gustar To like Molestar To bother Sentir ( e:ie ) To be sorry Soprender To surprise Temer To be worried Tener miedo (de) To be afraid of Es extraño It’s strange Es una lástima It’s a shame Es ridículo It’s ridiculous Es terrible It’s terrible Es triste It’s sad Ojalá ( que ) I hope that; I wish that

Verbs of Will and Influence:

Verbs of Will and Influence

Verbs of Emotion:

Verbs of Emotion Alegrarse (de) To be happy Esperar To hope; To wish Gustar To like Molestar To bother Sentir To be sorry Sorprender To surprise Temer To be worried Tener miedo (de) To be afraid of Es extraño It’s strange Es un lástima It’s a shame Es ridículo It’s ridiculous Es terrible It’s terrible Es triste It’s sad Ojalá I hope When the main clause of a sentence expresses an emotion or feeling, use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause Use the infinitive after an expression of emotion when there is no change of subject Ojalá que is always followed by the subjunctive s

Doubt, Disbelief, Denial:

Doubt, Disbelief, Denial Expressions of doubt, disbelief, or denial Dudar To doubt Negar To deny No creer Not to believe No estar seguro (de) Not to be sure of No es cierto It’s not true No es seguro It’s not certain No es verdad It’s not true Es imposible It’s impossible Es improbable It’s improbable No es posible It’s not possible No es probable It’s not probable The subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause when there is a change of subjeect and the main clause implies uncertainty Es probable and es posible trigger the subjunctive Use the infinitive after an expression of uncertainty, doubt, disbelief, or denial when there is no change of subject Quizás and tal ves are usually followed by the subjunctive Use the indicitive when the main clause expresses certainty Creer is followed by the indicitive No creer is followed by the subjunctive

Conjunctions:

Conjunctions Conjunctions that require the subjunctive A menos que Unless Antes (de) que Before Con tal (de) que Provided that En caso (de) que In case that Para que So that Sin que Without Conjunctions used with the subjunctive or indicative Cuando When Después (de) que After En cuanto As soon as Hasta que Until An pronto como As soon as Use the indicative if the verb expresses an action that habitually happens or happened in the past Use the subjunctive is the main clause expresses a future action or command Use the infinitive after antes de, para, sin when there is no change in subject