eye injury and occupational hazards

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By: davidjohn70 (46 month(s) ago)

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Occupational eye hazards :

Occupational eye hazards Dr N Raghu Dr Agarwal’s eye Hospital BANGLORE

REMEMBER………………………..:

REMEMBER……………………….. No job is so important and No service is so urgent – that we cannot take time to perform our work safely .

Management role :

Management role SAFETY PROGRAM INSPECTIONS/AUDITS SAFETY MEETINGS HAZARD AWARENESS ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION ACCIDENT REPORTING PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

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SAFETY …..is part of everyday living. It is an important consideration for everyone in everything he/she does, in the home, at work or play, on streets and highways – wherever he/she goes. More than 90 % of all accidents are avoidable , being caused by human error rather than by mechanical failure.

Health and Safety Procedures:

6 Health and Safety Procedures And, the interaction of each with the other!! Always give careful consideration to: Man….. Machine….. Environment…..

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7 EMPLOYEE RIGHTS * RIGHT to a safe and healthy workplace * RIGHT to have questions regarding safety and health addressed * RIGHT to receive and have access to all information regarding workplace hazards * RIGHT to refuse to perform an unsafe act

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8 ACCIDENTS ARE CAUSED BY: Unsafe Acts Unsafe Conditions

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9 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) PPE

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10 Eye protection comes in different types. Goggles are designed for solid or liquid hazards that are airborne and in a quantity that there is a greater likelihood of contact with or near the eye. Safety eyeglasses with protective side shields are designed for eye protection when the hazard is more casual by nature and the hazard(s) is of low quantity and likelihood. EYE PROTECTION

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11 Eyes may need protection from hazards other than those that include a physical contact with the eye. For example, UV light can cause permanent damage to vision. EYE PROTECTION

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12 EYE / FACE PROTECTION For more severe hazards, full face protection is needed. Examples of this are heavy grinding and heavy spraying or splashing. The full face shield not only protects the eyes, but the entire facial area as well. The face shield affords extra protection against hazards involving temperature extremes or hazardous chemicals. Due to the wide opening on the sides and bottom of the face shield, protective eyewear must be worn along with the face shield.

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13 COMMON EYE / FACE HAZARDS IMPACT Chipping, grinding machining, masonry work, woodworking, sawing, drilling, chiseling, powered fastening, riveting, and sanding . HEAT Furnace operations, pouring, casting, hot dipping, welding, chemicals LIGHT AND/OR RADIATION Electric arc welding, gas welding, gas cutting, and soldering . NUISANCE Irritating mists, dusts .

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14 EVERYONE WHO HAS SUFFERED AN EYE INJURY: A. Thought it would never happen to them. Would wear eye protection if they had it to do over again. Do you have anything in common with them?

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15 HEAD PROTECTION Hard hats are necessary to protect workers against hazards that include falling objects and overhead hazards in general. There are different types of hard hats. Some hats are designed to protect only against bumps (low overhead hazards), while others afford protection against falling objects. Metal hard hats should not be worn when there is a potential for contact with anything electrical. Hard hats must conform with the requirements of ANSI Z89.1-1986. Check the label on the hat for compliance with this standard.

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16 TYPES OF HEAD PROTECTION CLASS “A” HELMETS For impact, penetration, and electrical protection from low-voltage conductors (tested to 2,200 volts). CLASS “B” HELMETS For impact, penetration, and electrical protection from high-voltage conductors (tested to 20,000 volts). CLASS “C” HELMETS For impact and penetration hazards hazards only. Usually made of aluminum, which conducts electricity, and should not be worn around electrical hazards.

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17 FOOT PROTECTION Proper footwear can afford a level of protection for the feet and toes. Steel-toed boots or shoes protect toes against the crushing hazard of falling objects, such involved with pipe moving or heavy material handling. Rubber boots protect the feet against chemical hazards. For chemical hazards, check with your MSDS’. Footwear should also be selected based on protection from the walking/working surface. Construction sites with nails, or rough terrain including sharp rocks will require shoes or boots with sturdy, puncture-resistant soles.

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18 HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS REQUIRING FOOT PROTECTION IMPACT Carrying or handling materials such as packages, objects, parts or heavy tools which could be dropped. COMPRESSION Work activities involving skid trucks (manual material handling carts, around bulk rolls, around heavy pipes. PUNCTURE Sharp object hazards such as nails, wire, tacks, screws, large staples, scrap metal, etc. CHEMICAL Check with MSDS for proper protection.

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19 HAND PROTECTION Gloves should be selected according to the hazard. Handling hot materials usually requires leather gloves. Heavy cotton glove usually afford ample protection against scratch and abrasive hazards. Rubber gloves are usually necessary for electrical and chemical hazards. There are gloves designed to protect against cut hazards, as in the meat industry. Check with your MSDS’ and/or your glove supplier for more information .

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20 OTHER PROTECTION Other PPE may be required to protect against chemicals, cuts, abrasions, heat, etc.

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21 WHAT IS NOT COVERED Respiratory and hearing protection, if required, will be covered separately. A specific policy will be provided for each/either if the use of this protective equipment is required.

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22 EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES RESPONSIBILITY to comply with all policies and procedures RESPONSIBILITY to report all unsafe acts and conditions RESPONSIBILITY to be a team member - to assist others in compliance RESPONSIBILITY to offer suggestions that may have a positive impact on safety

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23 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) TRAINING REVIEW PPE

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24 ACCIDENTS don’t just happen… “THEY ARE CAUSED!!!”

CHEMICAL INJURY:

CHEMICAL INJURY Occupational hazards come in the form of common chemicals that can injure the eye, including Acids (eg, automobile battery acid, refrigerants, vinegar) Alkalis ( eg , drain cleaners, fertilizers, building supplies).

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Chemical injuries of the eye are true emergencies Prompt recognition and treatment Rapid dilution of the chemical agent is the immediate treatment necessary to reduce tissue damage and preserve vision The extent of ocular injury is proportional to the departure of the corrosive substance from the neutrality of pH 7.4 The time that it remains in contact with the eye, and the quantity requiring neutralization.

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Acid with lower-than-normal pH values precipitate tissue proteins, creating a barrier to further ocular penetration. The corneal epithelium offers some protection against weaker acids. Very weak acids may cause only temporary loss of the corneal epithelium with minimal damage to the deeper structures. Hydrofluoric acid and heavy metal acids are exceptions to the penetration rules of acidic agents

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Alkalis (bases) are agents with a pH in the higherthan - normal physiological range. In contrast to acids, lkaline agents rapidly penetrate the cornea, reacting with the cellular lipids to form soaps. Alkaline agents essentially dissolve the cell membranes; they continue destroying tissues much longer than acids do, permanently damaging ocular tissues

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The corneal epithelium sloughs The corneal stroma swells and opacifies ; endothelial cells die The angle structures scar, resulting in increased intraocular pressure. Nitric and chromic acids turn tissue yellow-brown.

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The extent of injury to the limbal area is critical in determining the severity and prognosis of chemical burns. The ocular reparative response to chemical injuries involves reepithelialization and vascularization . If the perilimbal blood supply is damaged, sterile necrosis of the peripheral cornea can ensue.

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Immediate Phase Acute phase (1 to 7 days) Early Reparative Phase (8 to 20 days) Late Reparative Phase (3 weeks after)

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Category of Injury Clinical Finding Mild -Erosion of corneal epithelium, Faint haziness of cornea, No ischemic necrosis of conjunctiva or sclera Moderately severe - Corneal opacity blurs iris detail, Mild ischemic necrosis of conjunctiva or sclera Very severe - Blurring of pupillary outline Significant ischemic necrosis of conjunctiva or sclera

Liquid Nitrogen Facts:

34 1 cubic foot of liquid nitrogen will expand to 696 cubic feet of 100% gaseous nitrogen at 70° F The nitrogen gas can displace the oxygen in the area, leading to asphyxiation Cryogenic liquids should always be stored in well-ventilated spaces Liquid Nitrogen Facts

Oxygen Deficiency:

35 Oxygen Deficiency Liquid nitrogen, when returned to the gaseous state, can displace oxygen from the air under the right conditions. It may be prudent to install oxygen monitors in areas where liquid nitrogen is stored and ventilation is minimal.

Characteristics of Oxygen Deficiency :

36 Characteristics of Oxygen Deficiency Physiological Effects: Asphyxia develops slowly as the oxygen content of air is gradually reduced from 21%. The victim will not be aware of a problem and generally will not recognize the symptoms of gradual asphyxia from decreasing oxygen levels.

Handling Liquid Nitrogen:

37 Handling Liquid Nitrogen Always read the container label prior to use Cryogenic liquid containers must always be stored in the upright position Cryogenic liquids should not be handled in open pail-type containers or in unapproved dewars. Transfer of liquid into warm lines or containers must be done slowly to prevent thermal shock and possible buildup of pressure.

Handling Liquid Nitrogen:

38 Handling Liquid Nitrogen Precautions: Always wear safety equipment, including heavy loose fitting leather or cryogenic gloves, and eye and face protection. High concentrations of escaping gas should not be allowed to collect in an enclosed area. Avoid prolonged breathing of cryogenic liquid vapors .

Handling Liquid Nitrogen:

39 Handling Liquid Nitrogen USE ONLY APPROVED, UNSEALED CONTAINERS Avoid rough handling of liquid containers Liquid cylinders should only be moved with proper handling equipment. Prior to use, ensure the fittings on the regulator match the fittings on the liquid container Never use adaptors Never attempt to change or remove any fittings

Liquid Withdrawal:

40 Liquid Withdrawal Caution!! Always wear a full face shield, goggles, leather or cryogenic gloves, safety shoes, and aprons when transferring liquid. Ensure that the liquid cannot collect in pants cuffs or travel down into shoes. Do not tuck cuffs into pants! Cuff gloves over sleeves . Transfer of liquids at pressures higher than 22 psig into open vessels such as small dewars can lead to excessive splashing. This could result in injury from freezing of the body part

Liquid Withdrawal:

41 Liquid Withdrawal Ensure that withdrawal hose is equipped with a phase separator to prevent splashing. Check with supervisor or supplier. Never dispense liquid into an unapproved container , such as a Thermos ® bottle. It will shatter!

Emergencies:

42 Emergencies If liquid is splashed in the eyes, flush with water for at least 15 minutes. Seek immediate medical attention. Skin contact may cause frostbite and burns. Soak affected part in tepid water and seek immediate medical attention. Skin contact is a medical emergency. Lack of prompt medical attention may result in amputation !! If there is a large spill or rupture of a container, call 911, warn others in building Evacuate!! There may be oxygen deficiency in the area of the spill!!

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So to conclude safety is better than cure

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Thank U

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