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ENDOCRINOLOGYThe Adrenal Glands : 


Structure of Adrenal Gland : 

Structure of Adrenal Gland Cortex Zona glomerulosa Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis Medulla Modified post-ganglionic neurons intimately connected to sympathetic neurons.

Adrenal Gland : 

Adrenal Gland

Synthesis in the Cortex : 

Synthesis in the Cortex

Aldosterone : 

Aldosterone Mineralocorticoid Regulates concentration of Na+ and K+. Kidney conserves Na+. Kidney excretes K+. Responds to changes in composition of plasma. Linked to renin-angiotensin system of kidney.

Corticoadrenal Regulation : 

Corticoadrenal Regulation

Aldosterone Functions : 

Aldosterone Functions

Control of Aldosterone : 

Control of Aldosterone ACTH Low Blood Pressure, Low Na+. Juxtaglomerula cells release renin. Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I to angiotensin II by ACE. Angiotensin II stimulates adrenal gland to release aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on kidney.

Cortisol : 

Cortisol Glucocorticoid Affects glucose, protein, fat metabolism. Inhibits synthesis of protein in tissues. Promotes the the use of fatty acids as energy source and decreases the use of glucose. Stimulates liver cells to synthesize glucose from noncarbohydrates (gluconeogenesis) and increases blood glucose concentrations.

Cortisol Regulation : 

Cortisol Regulation

Regulation Cortisol : 

Regulation Cortisol

Molecular Structures : 

Molecular Structures

Cortisol Stimulators : 

Cortisol Stimulators ACTH (hypothalamohypophyseal adrenal axis) Stress Injuries, disease, low temperature, long term emotional stress, emotional upset Low plasma glucose concentration

Androgen : 

Androgen Small quantity of androgen produced. Some is converted to estrogen by liver, adipose tissue

Hormones of Adrenal Medulla : 

Hormones of Adrenal Medulla

Sympathetic Stimulation (Adrenal Gland) : 

Sympathetic Stimulation (Adrenal Gland)

Sympathetic Innervation of Adrenal Gland : 

Sympathetic Innervation of Adrenal Gland

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