Biomech_of_Walking_and_Running

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By: azward (136 month(s) ago)

this is very use full for sports men to correct there running patterns,

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Biomechanics of GaitWalking : 

Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 2: 

Presented BY, :- Dr.Vishal B. Boricha (MPT, Sports)

Biomechanics of GaitWalking : 

Applications Walking as a Critical Fundamental Movement Pattern Walking as a Recreational Activity Walking as a Modality for Rehabilitation Walking as a Competitive Sport Influence of Injury/Disease/Disability on Walking Aging Effects on Walking and Implications Independence Footwear Issues Energy Cost E. Muybridge Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Describing the Gait Cycle : 

Describing the Gait Cycle Characteristics of Walking Cyclic Universal Pattern Bi-laterally symmetric Range of Speeds Adaptable to Varied Surfaces Efficient Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Describing the Gait Cycle : 

Describing the Gait Cycle Phases of the Gait Cycle Stance Phase Initial Double Limb Support Single Limb Support Terminal Double Limb Support Swing Phase Initial Swing Terminal Swing Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 6: 

When we walk, what must happen ?? Control Forces Produce Resist Dissipate Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 7: 

Objectives Control Forces Maintain Balance Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 8: 

Objectives Resist/Dissipate Forces Maintain Balance Move Body in Intended Direction Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 9: 

Objectives Resist/Dissipate Forces Maintain Balance Move Body in Intended Direction Conserve Energy Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 10: 

Produce/Resist /Dissipate Force Source of Forces Gravity Muscle Contraction Inertia Magnitude of Forces Direction of Forces Vertical Fore/Aft Medial Lateral Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 11: 

Produce/Resist /Dissipate Force Forces produce moments (torques) that…. Cause rotations – Total Body Joint Segment Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 12: 

Maintain Balance The Issues – Dynamic Movement Influenced by external factors Single versus Double Support Depends on Multiple Systems Adaptations in Base of Support Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 13: 

Move Body in Intended Direction Re-Positioning of Center of Gravity Re-Positioning of Limb Segments Force Production applied to the ground Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 14: 

Conserve Energy The Six Determinants of Gait (Inman, et. al.) Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 15: 

Energy Expenditure = Work Done Work = Force x Distance Force = Mass x Acceleration Therefore – the amount of energy we expend is directly related to the amount of mass we move and the extent and speed of movement The Six Determinants of Gait Underlying Concept Biomechanics of GaitWalking

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Determinants of Gait Pelvic Rotation – transverse plane Lateral Pelvic Tilt – frontal plane Knee Flexion – during stance Ankle PF - at Toe Off Knee-Ankle-Foot Interaction Gait Width – frontal plane Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Role of Foot Motion : 

Role of Foot Motion Objectives To aid in force dissipation To provide a mobile adapter To provide a rigid lever for propulsion Mechanism - Sub-talar Joint Motion A Tri-planar motion PF and DF Inversion/Eversion AB/ADduction Biomechanics of GaitWalking

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Lateral Side Medial Side At Ground Contact Contact Made on the Lateral Border of the Heel Foot is Supinated Foot is Rigid Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 19: 

Early Stance to MidStance Lateral Side Medial Side Foot is Pronated Foot is Mobile (flexible) Enhances Balance Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 20: 

Lateral Side Medial Side Late Stance to Toe-Off Foot is Supinated Foot is Rigid Enhances Propulsion Biomechanics of GaitWalking

Slide 21: 

Pronation/Supination Issues: Too Little – Loss of force dissipation Loss of Mobility – Balance Stress Injury Too Much Relationship to Tibial Rotation Associated Patellar Tracking Issues Soft-Tissue Stress Control of Pronation/Supination Shoe Design Orthotics Muscle Strengthening – Posterior Tib Biomechanics of GaitWalking

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Biomechanics of GaitRunning

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As a component of competitive sport As a recreational activity As a stage of motor development As a cause of injury Running: Biomechanics of GaitRunning

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Velocity - Greater range than walking Kinematic Parameters - Increase in most Kinetic Parameters - Increase in some Energy Cost - Generally greater Phasic Differences……. Biomechanics of GaitRunning Differences between walking and running

Biomechanics of RunningDifferences Between Walking and Running : 

Walking - Always a Double Support Phase No Flight Phase Walking Biomechanics of RunningDifferences Between Walking and Running

Applied BiomechanicsBiomechanics of RunningDifferences Between Walking and Running : 

Walking - Always a Double Support Phase No Flight Phase Walking Running Running - Never a Double Support Phase Always a flight Phase Applied BiomechanicsBiomechanics of RunningDifferences Between Walking and Running

RunningWhat’s Involved? : 

RunningWhat’s Involved? Project body vertically/horizontally Sufficient vertical/horizontal impulse Flight Dissipate impact Appropriate vertical/horizontal impulse Maintain balance in single support Re-position limbs

How is Propulsion Produced? : 

How is Propulsion Produced? Propulsive Force Segment motion Newtons 3rd Transfer of Momentum Free leg Arms

How is Momentum Dissipated? : 

How is Momentum Dissipated? Foot Mechanism Ankle Mechanism Knee Mechanism Shoe Mechanism Surface Mechanism

Walking/Running ForcesGRF Differences : 

Walking/Running ForcesGRF Differences Walking Running

Ground Reaction Forces in Running : 

Ground Reaction Forces in Running GRF’s Influenced by Velocity Vertical Displacement Shoes Surface GRF’s Influence Foot Pressures Joint Forces Joint Moments Impact Shock

Braking/Propelling GRF in Running : 

Braking/Propelling GRF in Running

M/L GRF in Running : 

M/L GRF in Running

Running - Joint ROMAdaptations : 

Running - Joint ROMAdaptations Ankle Increased PF/DF Increased pronation/supination Knee Increased flexion in early stance and swing Hip Increased flexion and extension Pelvis Increased transverse plane rotation Arms Increased shoulder ROM Increased elbow flexion

RearFoot Motion in Running : 

RearFoot Motion in Running Sub-talar Joint Motion Increases duration of impact - facilitates dissipation of momentum Locks/un-locks mid-foot - adaptation to terrain Provides rigidity for propulsion Dynamic Measurement - rearfoot angle Relationship between calcaneus and shank ***FootTrak***

Rearfoot Motion - Too Much…Too Little : 

Rearfoot Motion - Too Much…Too Little

Running ShoesIssues : 

Running ShoesIssues

Biomechanics of Running Issues? : 

Biomechanics of Running Issues? The Problem !!! Surface/Shoe Cushioning.. Versus.. Energy Cost

Biomechanics of Running Issues? : 

Biomechanics of Running Issues? What Factors Influence Speed ??? Speed = Stride Length x Stride Rate Stride Length Anthropometric Factors Strength Flexibility Neuromuscular Factors Stride Rate Neuromuscular Factors Technique Can Running Speed be Improved ??? Yes !!!!!!!

Biomechanics of Running Issues? : 

Biomechanics of Running Issues? What Factors Influence Energy Cost ??? Speed Vertical Displacement “Extra” Motion Optimum Stride Length…Stride Rate Relationship Can Running Efficiency be Improved ??? Yes……..but!

Slide 41: 

Biomechanics of Running Issues? Injuries – A Biomechanical Origin Most running injuries have a biomechanical origin !! Issues – Force Inability to dissipate force Repetition

Running InjuriesContributing Risk Factors : 

Running InjuriesContributing Risk Factors Intrinsic: Biomechanical abnormalities; Malalignment Muscle imbalance Lack of flexibility Muscle weakness Instability Extrisic: Training errors Equipment Environment Sports-imposed deficiencies Technique / Biomechanics

Problems with TechniqueOver-Striding : 

Problems with TechniqueOver-Striding

Problems with TechniquePronation –Eversion : 

Problems with TechniquePronation –Eversion

Problems with TechniqueHip Instability : 

Problems with TechniqueHip Instability

Problems with TechniqueLack Of Stiffness (Not Tall) : 

Problems with TechniqueLack Of Stiffness (Not Tall)

Signs of Excessive Pronation : 

Signs of Excessive Pronation Extremely flat foot during weight bearing Medial whip Abducted forefoot Bunions and calluses Medial shoe wear Longer leg “Footprints in the sand”

Signs of Excessive Supination : 

Signs of Excessive Supination Excessively high arch and weight bearing Increase lateral shoe wear Shorter leg

The 10 Laws of Running Injuries : 

The 10 Laws of Running Injuries 1. Running injuries are not an act of God 2. Each injury progresses through 4 grades – 1 pain after exercise and only shortly there after – 2 discomfort-not yet pain-during exercise – 3 severe discomfort -now recognized as pain, and limits training and performance – 4 an injury so severe that prevents any attempts at running

10 Laws of Running Injuries Cont… : 

10 Laws of Running Injuries Cont… 3. Each injury indicates a breakdown 4. Most true running injuries are curable 5. Sophisticated methods are seldom needed to diagnose injury 6. Treat the cause not the effect 7. Complete rest is seldom the most appropriate treatment

10 Laws of Running Injuries Cont… : 

10 Laws of Running Injuries Cont… 8. Never accept as final the advice of a non-runner 9. Avoid surgery as a first line of defense 10. There is little evidence that recreational running causes osteoarthritis

Injury Prevention : 

Injury Prevention An active warm-up is crucial Stretching (more important for those with deficiencies) Hold at least 30 seconds Avoid ballistic movements Keep running specific muscles strengthened Choose running surfaces wisely Avoid training errors Be smart…live to run another day

Key Lower Extremity Muscles toStretch : 

Key Lower Extremity Muscles toStretch Hamstrings Quadriceps Hip rotators Hip flexors Groin ITB Calf (gastroc/soleus) Plantar fascia

Key Lower Extremity Muscles toStrengthen : 

Key Lower Extremity Muscles toStrengthen Core strength is essential Hip flexors Quadriceps Hamstrings Gluteals Calf Foot intrinsics General strengthening is important however action specific strengthening is crucial

Slide 58: 

THANK YOU