Great War 2011-12 - blanks

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Overview for world history students at Katherine Thomas High School

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The Great War :

T he Great War 1. Causes of the Great War 2. Where was it fought? 3. How did it end? Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 1

1. What caused the Great War? N – I – M – A (memorize it):

1. What caused the Great War? N – I – M – A (memorize it) Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 2 Nationalism - the nations of Europe were proud of their achievements – industry, wealth, and empires. Each nation thought it was ____________________ . Imperialism - as nations acquired _______________, the empires competed for wealth and power. Militarism - Competition led to the desire to build larger and better equipped armies and ____________. These forces could be used to expand empires and defend them from other empires. ____________________system - Empires joined with one another for “protection” (look at the map ).

Europe Before 1914: Two alliances:

Europe Before 1914 : T wo alliances Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 3 An alliance is an agreement between countries to ________each other in war. The two colors show the two alliances Notice how Germany was “____________” and dependent on Austria-Hungary. Sarajevo

The Two Alliances:

The Two Alliances Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 4 TRIPLE ENTENTE (became the ____________) England and France shared the same enemy: Germany. Russia needed Britain’s support against Austria and the Ottoman Empire TRIPLE ALLIANCE (became the ______________POWERS) Germany feared being surrounded by the Triple Entente (Allies), so it needed an ally: __________________ Austria was divided into nationalities that wanted independence. It was too weak to defend itself from its enemies (Russia), so it needed German help. Even a tiny __________involving either alliance could lead to a huge war involving both alliances.

1. What caused the Great War? The spark…:

1. What caused the Great War? The spark… Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 5 STEP ONE _____________________was a small, independent country. In addition, many Serb people lived in Austria. Serbs wanted one big Serb _________________independent of Austria. The man who was in line to be the next Austrian emperor , Franz Ferdinand, visited Sarajevo, in Austria. Many Serbs lived there. A 19-year-old Serb NATIONALIST killed Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. He was encouraged by the Serb government. STEP TWO GERMANY SUPPORTED AUSTRIA in demanding an _______________from Serbia . STEP THREE Serbia refused to apologize, and AUSTRIA _______________WAR ON SERBIA on July 28, 1914.

1. What caused the Great War? The Spark that lit the fire:

1. What caused the Great War? The Spark that lit the fire Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 6 STEP FOUR In support of its ally, Serbia, RUSSIA MOBILIZED ITS ________________TO FIGHT AUSTRIA ITS ALLY, GERMANY. STEP FIVE In response, ___________________MOBILIZED TOO and DECLARED WAR ON RUSSIA on AUGUST 1 and on FRANCE on AUGUST 3. STEP SIX To avoid a two-________________ war, Germany marched through _______________to get to France. STEP SEVEN ENGLAND DECIDED TO HELP NEUTRAL _________________ AND DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY. Once attacked, France declared war on Germany and Austria.

“If you hit that little feller, I’ll…”:

“If you hit that little feller, I’ll…” Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 7

PowerPoint Presentation:

Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 8 At first, young men were excited to take part in the war.

2. Where was the war fought?:

2. Where was the war fought? Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 9 A ________ is where fighting takes place in a war. In the Great War, there were ______ major fronts: Western Front : Northern _______. About 400 miles long. ______________Front : Russia’s border with Germany and Austria; more than __________ miles long.

The Western Front:

The Western Front To avoid a two-front war, Germans planned to knock out _____________in a few weeks. That’s why they attacked ______________. Attacking Belgium brought in __________. Both dug into _____________. By the end of 1914, Germany and France reached a _________________ . Neither side was winning. 10 Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal

The Western Front:

The Western Front 11 Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal To fight from trenches, both sides used deadly technology: long-range ___________; airplanes; poison _________; tanks ; barbed ________; and machine _______ The Western Front lasted until 1918, when the US came in on France’s side and pushed the Germans out of France.

Great battles: Western Front:

Great battles: Western Front Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 12 Marne Verdun Somme September 1914 February to December 1916 July to November 1916 The French stopped German offensive against _________. Germany failed to knock our France. Trench warfare began. _____________ wanted a breakthrough and launched this attack. 40 million artillery _____________were fired. Together, Germans and French lost 700,000 men without gaining __________ British and French _____________ against Germany to take pressure off Verdun The first day was bloodiest day of any battle in history. The _____________was used for the first time. Britain made slight gains for and its army was now respected in the world.

Eastern Front:

Eastern Front Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 13 Austria had to fight on 2 fronts: against Russia in the east and Serbia and Italy in the south. It lacked the ___________to win both wars. Germany concentrated its forces against _______________. Russia had a large army but it never had enough __________ because of poor transportation. Russia’s industry could not organize the workers or materials effectively to supply the army with _____________.

Eastern Front: Russia’s losses:

Eastern Front: Russia’s losses Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 14 1914: Big _________victory at Tannenberg 1915: Germany and Austria combined armies and pushed Russia eastward 1916: Russian attack failed. 1917: Russia failed to stop the Germans. No one supported the _____________ government. Starving Russian soldiers

Defeat on the Eastern Front leads to a Revolution in Russia:

Defeat on the Eastern Front leads to a Revolution in Russia Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 15 The imperial government was badly _______________. ____________ was running out in major cities. _______________, especially women in large cities, were unhappy with low wages and the absence of food. In February 1917, they went on _______________. They refused to work and wanted peace. The emperor’s advisors recommended that he give up his power and allow a more __________ government to fight the war. He quit as emperor!!! A new government continued _______________. In October the Communists took power in October 1917. The communists pulled Russia out of the war.

Home Front:

Home Front Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 16 All _____________wanted women, children, and the elderly to help win the war by… ____________ in factories and make guns and equipment Growing ______________for soldiers Not _________food and metal objects Lending ______________ to the government for the war

PowerPoint Presentation:

Governments communicated with people on the home front through ____________ posters. Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 17

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nationalist posters taught people to __________their enemy. Who made these posters? Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 18

3. How did the Great War end?:

3. How did the Great War end? Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 19 In ________ , the US entered war because its ships were being sunk by German subs. Its soldiers made it possible to push the Germans back on the Western Front in 1918. By 1917, people at home were __________ of the war and began to be unhappy with their governments in Germany, Italy, and France ___________ ( agreement to stop fighting) was signed on November 11,1918 .

Results of the War: Numbers:

Results of the War: Numbers Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 20 65 million men fought. Almost 10 million soldiers killed. 7 million civilians were killed. ____________ of boys born in 1890 in France were killed or wounded. __________million or more died from the global Spanish influenza (flu) pandemic in 1919. Disease spread quickly because communities everywhere were weakened by poor nutrition during the war.

Results of the War : Nations:

Results of the War : Nations Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 21 As a result of the war: The GERMAN Empire disappeared . Germany became a _____________( democracy ). Germany was blamed…and punished The AUSTRIAN Empire disappeared . Every nationality became a new _________________. The RUSSIAN Empire disappeared . It was replaced by a __________________government that took over all factories and claimed to speak for workers. It was really a dictatorship. The OTTOMAN Empire disappeared and was carved up into countries that became Iran, Iraq, Israel, Turkey, etc. Britain and France survived but were weakened. The _________was the world’s strongest country.

Results of the War: Maps:

Europe in 1914 and 1919. Notice the __________ of Germany, Austria, and Russia before and after the war Results of the War: Maps Modern World History, 2011-12, Mr Peal 22

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