Deep Fungal Infections

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DEEP FUNGAL INFECTIONS:

DEEP FUNGAL INFECTIONS Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1

Deep Mycosis is due to many reasons:

Deep Mycosis is due to many reasons MYCETOMA / MADURA FOOT HISTOPLASMOSIS SPOROTRICHOSIS CHROMOMYCOSIS 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 2

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION The fungi that cause subcutaneous mycoses normally reside in soil or on vegetation. They enter the skin or subcutaneous tissue by traumatic inoculation with contaminated material. In general, the lesions become granulomatous and expand slowly from the area of implantation. Extension via the lymphatics draining the lesion is slow except in sporotrichosis. These mycoses are usually confined to the subcutaneous tissues, but in rare cases they become systemic and produce life-threatening disease. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3

Deep and Superficial Mycosis:

Deep and Superficial Mycosis 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4

Route of Entry of Deep Mycotic Infections:

Route of Entry of Deep Mycotic Infections 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5

MYCETOMA / MADURA FOOT :

MYCETOMA / MADURA FOOT Maduramycosis is a chronic infection of the skin and/or subcutaneous tissue resulting in tumefaction (swelling) studded with sinuses discharging grains. It typically affects the lower extremities but can occur in almost any region of the body. Mycetoma predominates in farm workers but can also be seen in the general population. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6

History of Maduramycosis:

The disease was first described by Gill in the Madura district of India in 1842, hence "Madura foot". In 1860 Carter named the condition "mycetoma," describing its fungal aetiology. In 1813, Pinoy described the mycetoma produced by aerobic bacteria that belong to the actinomycete group and classified mycetomas as those produced by true fungi (eumycetoma) versus those due to aerobic bacteria (actinomycetoma). Both types have similar clinical findings. History of Maduramycosis 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7

MYCETOMA- causative agents:

MYCETOMA- causative agents Portal of entry is usually trivial injury 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8

MYCETOMA-Clinical features:

MYCETOMA-Clinical features Mycetoma is a chronic Suppurative infection originating in subcutaneous tissue and characterized by the presence of grains, which are tightly clumped colonies of the causative agent. The infected site is characterized by painless swelling, woody induration, and sinus tracts that discharge pus intermittently. Systemic symptoms do not develop, and spread to distant sites in the body does not take place. Commonly affected sites are the foot and lower leg. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9

Madura foot:

Madura foot A 45 year old man with slowly progressive deformity since 13 years. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10

MYCETOMA- Diagnosis:

MYCETOMA- Diagnosis Although the clinical picture is characteristic, mycetoma is sometimes confused with chronic osteomyelitis . The diagnosis requires demonstration of grains in pus from the draining sinus or in biopsy sections. Many histologic sections may need to be examined to locate a grain. The causative organism is cultured in Sabouraud's’ dextrose agar medium. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11

MYCETOMA- Treatment:

MYCETOMA- Treatment Actinomycetoma may respond to prolonged combination chemotherapy—e.g., with streptomycin (14mg/kg daily IM for 3 months) and either Dapsone (1.5mg/kg 12 hourly orally) or trimethoprim-Sulphmethoxazole. Eumycetoma rarely responds to chemotherapy; some cases caused by Madurella mycetomatis have appeared to respond to ketoconazole or itraconazole. Surgery may be a valuable alternative to the often poor results of medical treatment, which is with systemic antibiotics or antifungal drugs, depending on the organism isolated. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12

SPOROTRICHOSIS:

SPOROTRICHOSIS Sporothrix schenckii lives as a saprophyte on plants in many areas of the world. In nature and on culture at room temperature, the fungus grows as a mould; within host tissue or at 37 O C on enriched media, it grows as a budding yeast. It is identified by its appearance in mould and yeast forms. Aetiology 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13

SPOROTRICHOSIS- Pathogenesis and Pathology :

SPOROTRICHOSIS- Pathogenesis and Pathology Infection results from the inoculation of S.schenckii into subcutaneous tissue through minor trauma. Nursery workers , florists , and gardeners acquire the illness from roses, sphagnum moss, and other plants. Infection may be limited to the site of inoculation (plaque sporotrichosis) or extend along proximal lymphatic channels (lymphangitic sporotrichosis). Spread beyond an extremity—the usual site of infection—is rare, and hematogenous dissemination from the skin remains unproven. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14

SPOROTRICHOSIS-Clinical Manifestations:

SPOROTRICHOSIS- Clinical Manifestations In lymphangitic sporotrichosis, which is by far the most common manifestation, a nearly painless red papule forms at the site of inoculation. Over the next several weeks, similar nodules form along proximal lymphatic channels. The nodules intermittently discharge small amounts of pus. Ulceration may occur. The proximal extension of these lesions, often with skip areas, is quite distinctive but may be mimicked by lesions of Nocardia brasiliensis , Mycobacterium marinum , or (in rare cases) Leishmania brasiliensis or Mycobacterium kansasii . 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15

SPOROTRICHOSIS-Diagnosis:

SPOROTRICHOSIS- Diagnosis Culture of pus, joint fluid, sputum, or a skin biopsy specimen is preferred. The appearance of S.schenckii in tissue is variable. In skin lesions, the organisms are hard to find. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 16

SPOROTRICHOSIS-treatment :

SPOROTRICHOSIS- treatment Itraconazole (100 to 200 mg daily) is the drug of choice for the treatment of cutaneous Sporotrichosis. A saturated solution of potassium iodide given orally is also effective, but side effects often prevent the effective use of this regimen. Therapy should be continued for 1 month after the resolution of all lesions. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 17

CHROMOMYCOSIS:

CHROMOMYCOSIS Also called verrucous dermatitis Characterized by insidious development of verrucoid, papillomatous excrescences confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the feet and legs. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18

CHROMOMYCOSIS- etiology:

CHROMOMYCOSIS- etiolog y Caused by a species of closely related fungi producing identical morphology. They are: Phialophora verrucosa Phialophora pedrosoi Fonsecaea compacta Phialophora dermatitidis Cladosporium carionii 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19

CHROMOMYCOSIS- Habitat:

CHROMOMYCOSIS- Habitat Soil and wood are their natural habitats They are introduced traumatically into human tissue Incubation period varies from few months to a few years 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20

CHROMOMYCOSIS- clinical features:

CHROMOMYCOSIS- clinical features A warty papule develops at the inoculation site. This gradually ulcerates and/or enlarges to form a brownish black verrucous plaque with a raised border. Ulceration occurs Gross deformation of the foot ‘Mossy Foot’ New satellite warty papules emerge in the vicinity. The disease is asymptomatic but secondary bacterial infection can cause itching Underlying bone and muscle are spared In extreme cases blockage of the deeper lymphatics may be responsible for secondary elephantiasis. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21

Chromomycosis of the forearm:

Chromomycosis of the forearm 6 cm annular violaceous plaque with overlying scaly and dyspigmentation at the border 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22

CHROMOMYCOSIS- Diagnosis:

CHROMOMYCOSIS- Diagnosis Made by the clinical features, isolation of the fungus on culture and its demonstration on histopathologic tissue section. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 23

CHROMOMYCOSIS- treatment:

CHROMOMYCOSIS- treatment Excision followed by plastic repair can be performed in early lesions. Localized lesions may respond to amphotericin B Recently oral Ketoconazole has emerged as the treatment of choice 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 24

Phaeohyphomycosis :

Phaeohyphomycosis Subcutaneous or brain abscess caused by dematiaceous fungi Affected site: thigh , legs, feet, arms ..etc, brain (cerebral) Lesion: neuro and abcesses 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25

Aetiology: :

Aetiology: Dematiaceous imperfect mold fungi, mainly: Cladosporium, Exophiala, Wangiella, Cladophialphora bantiana (C. bantianum) , Ramichloridum mackinziei, Bipolaris, Drechslera, Rhinocladiella, C. Cladosporoides, E. jeanselmei, W. dermatitidis’ 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26

Diagnosis:

Diagnosis Specimens: pus, biopsy tissue Direct microscopic examination: KOH and smear brown septate hyphae Culture on SDA and mycobiotic , it’s very slow growing black or grey colonies 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27

PowerPoint Presentation:

Management: phaeohyphyphosis Clean surgical excision of the lesion and antifungal treatment Cerebral phaeohyphosis: aspiration of pus and antifungal Amphotericin B, %-fluorocytosine (5-FC) Azoles (Voriconazole, posaconazole Caspofungin 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28

Rhinosporidiosis.:

Rhinosporidiosis is an infection of the mucocutaneous tissue caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an as yet unisolated and unclassified fungus. It causes a chronic granulomatous disease characterised by the production of large polyps, tumours, papillomas, or wart-like lesions. The nose is the most commonly affected site. Rhinosporidiosis. 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rhinosporidiosis Clinical: Mucocutaenous fungal infection Sites: nasal, oral, (palate, epiglottis), conjunctiva Lesion: polyps, papilomas, warts-like lesion More seen in communities near swamps Etiology: Rhinosporidium seebri Obligatory parasitic fungus Believed to be chytridiomycetes (div. mastigo), doesn't grow on artificial media but has been grown in tissue culture Laboratory diagnosis: specimens, biopsy tissue Direct microscopy: stained section or smears KOH, will show spherules with endospores Culture on SDA will be negative Management: cryosurgical excision of lesion-relapse common 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30

Typical Histopathology in Rhinosporidiosis :

Typical Histopathology in Rhinosporidiosis 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 31

432:

432 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 32

PowerPoint Presentation:

Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Paramedical Students Email [email protected] 12/1/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33

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