Teaching medicine from past to future

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Teaching medicine from past to future

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Teaching medicine past to future:

Dr.T.V.Rao MD Teaching medicine past to future Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1

What we are trained – we teach:

What we are trained – we teach The Classical in which a lecture is divided into broad areas and then subdivided. This is the easiest method of structuring a lecture and, potentially , the most boring . An extension of this method is the iterative classical in which a set procedure is applied to each topic. For example signs , symptoms, diagnoses, management and prognosis may be applied to a set of related diseases . Dr.T.V.Rao MD 2

Problems in Medical Education: :

Too much information, too little time, too many students in crowded rooms, and exams that discourage real learning Problems in Medical Education: Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3

Education is changing from past to future:

Education is changing from past to future The old way of learning, was knowing what you should know. Now the way of learning is knowing what you don't know, not feeling bad about it, and knowing how to find out. BMJ  2003;327:1430-1433 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4

Teaching on problem and solving:

The Problem Centred in which a problem is outlined and various solutions are offered. Handled well, this method can play on the curiosity or clinical interests of the students. Teaching on problem and solving Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5

The Sequential:

In which a problem or question is presented and followed by a chain of reasoning which leads to a solution or conclusion. It is easy to lose the students’ attention when using this method so the use of periodic summaries is recommended The Sequential Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6

The Comparative:

I n which two or more perspectives , methods or models are compared. It is better done visually rather than orally. A common weakness is to assume that the audience knows intimately the perspective or methods under review. If in doubt, first outline each of the perspectives. The Comparative Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7

The Thesis:

I n which an assertion is made and then proved or disproved through a mixture of argument and perhaps speculation. Potentially an interesting approach for students but, like the sequential approach, it can sometimes be difficult to follow. The Thesis Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8

What is wrong with our lectures:

What is wrong with our lectures What's wrong with lectures?” was a key question posed to undergraduate medical education program . What students disliked was not lectures, but poor quality lecturing. Students’ dislikes were: • inaudibility; • incoherence; • talking too fast; • poor use of audio visual aids; • too much information Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9

Why thing go wrong in teaching:

saying too much too quickly; • not giving sufficient time to copy diagrams; • assuming too much knowledge; • forgetting to provide summaries; • not indicating asides; • difficulty in timing a lecture. Why thing go wrong in teaching Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10

Teachers express their reasons:

unresponsive audiences; • large groups; • effort and time involved in preparation; • feelings of failure after a bad lecture; • lecturing on topics disliked. Teachers express their reasons Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11

PowerPoint Presentation:

Assess Teach Reflect Plan Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12

Medical students have their own choices:

Medical students have their own choices Science students value logically structured notes more highly than do arts students and arts students value gains in insights and new perspectives more than science and medical students do. Science students see lectures as an entrée into reading. For arts students lectures, ideally, follow reading, and help them to interpret what they have read (Brown & Daines , 1981a and b). Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13

The teacher and changes in medical education:

The teacher and changes in medical education 1- Changes in medical education Medical education has seen major changes over the past decade. Integrated teaching, problem-based learning, community-based learning, core curricula with electives or options and more systematic curriculum planning. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14

The teacher and changes in medical education:

The teacher and changes in medical education 2 - Changes in medical education Increasing emphasis is being placed on self-directed study with students expected to take more responsibility for their own learning. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15

The teacher and changes in medical education:

The teacher and changes in medical education 3 - Changes in medical education The application of new learning technologies has supported this move. New directions can be identified too in the area of assessment with increased emphasis on performance assessment. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 16

The teacher and changes in medical education:

The teacher and changes in medical education 4- An increased emphasis on the students The increasing emphasis on student autonomy in medical education has moved the centre of gravity away from the teacher and closer to the student. Indeed it has become fashionable to talk about learning and learners rather than teaching and the teacher. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 17

HOW TO MAKE YOUR LECTURES WORK:

HOW TO MAKE YOUR LECTURES WORK Connecting learning to the knowledge of the learner facilitates retention and transfer of information. All learning experiences should therefore be appropriate to the level of the learner and relate to the learner's previous experiences. During the learning session, information should be structured in a way that demonstrates the relationship between key ideas. As well, there should be clear linkages between individual sessions to allow for progressive reinforcement of fundamental concepts, while at the same time minimizing unnecessary redundancy. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18

PowerPoint Presentation:

“ not so much what to teach, but how to teach…” Sir W illiam Osler, 1899 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19

“To act on or influence each other”:

Learning is a process that results in some modification, relatively permanent , of the learner's way of thinking, feeling or doing. Learning therefore requires the active construction of new ideas or ways of thinking on the part of the learner “To act on or influence each other” Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20

Effectively communicating your ideas?:

Organize your ideas into a logical structure including headings and subheadings. Provide students with your outline at the beginning of the class. Continue to refer to your outline as the class progresses Effectively communicating your ideas? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21

Organise your lecture for 60 minutes First ~5-10 minutes:

Provide your “core idea,” hook students , relate to what they know already , review or link to previous material , provide organizer for the lecture , and note importance of the topic to the students, course and other goals Organise your lecture for 60 minutes First ~5-10 minutes Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22

Next ~40-45 minutes ( contain the Body of lecture ):

Introduce new concepts, present key terms , explain challenging concepts, link to “real life” situations, provide vivid examples and illustrations, ask questions , respond to answers, build in case studies, break up lecture with activities . Review main points periodically . Next ~40-45 minutes ( contain the Body of lecture ) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 23

Conclude in 5-10 minutes:

Summarize, reiterate the “core idea ,” reflect back on organizer, link to additional readings and next class, solicit feedback. Conclude in 5-10 minutes Dr.T.V.Rao MD 24

THE 10 QUALITIES OF EXEMPLARY LECTURERS:

THE 10 QUALITIES OF EXEMPLARY LECTURERS 1. Carefully select key information 2. Clearly state their key objectives 3. Inform students in advance of topics and objectives 4. Structure presentations using a specific organizer 5. Provide hand-outs or slides with key information in advance Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25

THE 10 QUALITIES OF EXEMPLARY LECTURERS (Cont.):

THE 10 QUALITIES OF EXEMPLARY LECTURERS (Cont.) 6 Pose an intriguing question or problem 7. Use a wide variety of oral and visual techniques 8. Present key ideas as opposed to lists of details 9. Explain clearly using multiple approaches e.g. narrative, comparisons, examples 10. Promote interactive learning. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26

PowerPoint Presentation:

ü Initiate the conversation about learning goals ü Help student make a plan that make sense ü Make the student be accountable for the goals he or she has set ü Give feedback on reaching the goals ü Have student adjust goals as needed Your Job as Teacher Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27

Teachers to remember we are not robots bring life to your teaching :

“Learning is not a spectator sport. Students... must talk about what they are learning , write about it, relate it to past experiences , apply it to their daily lives.” ( Chickering and Gamson , 1987) Teachers to remember we are not robots bring life to your teaching Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28

Our teaching should be patient centred:

Medical education should be patient cantered Ample content in our day to day practice Formative Assessment needs to be stressed Our teaching should be patient centred Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29

Bring order in your class room from chaos ……… to:

Bring order in your class room from chaos ……… to Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30

Competent teachers can bring in change from past to future:

Competent teachers can bring in change f rom past to future Dr.T.V.Rao MD 31

PowerPoint Presentation:

“ He teaches best who shows his students not what to think, but how to think…” Alan Gregg Dr.T.V.Rao MD 32

Technology - empowering our students are the medical teachers ready …..:

Adopting technology in education dramatically results in better educational results, progressive college operations, and also smoother and more streamlined academic and administrative workflow Technology - empowering our students are the medical teachers ready ….. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33

Medical teachers should empower with computers and technology or ……..:

Medical teachers should empower with computers and technology or …….. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 34

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dr.T.V.Rao MD 35 Programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical Professionals, and Medical Educators in the Developing World Email [email protected]

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