Evolving Pedagogy

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Evolving Pedagogy: can ICT enhance learning and teaching?:

Evolving Pedagogy: can ICT enhance learning and teaching? DJL

Answer …:

Answer … .. no simple causation … results are contradictory … it depends on your beliefs about learning … … are we asking the right questions? Selwyn, N. 2011. Chapter 4: Does Technology Improve Learning? in Selwyn N. Education and Technology: Key Issues and Debates . Continuum. Available online: http://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/protected/external/AbstractView/S9781441108890 (11/10/12)


Overview Behaviourism Cognitivism Constructivism Socio-Cultural Psychology Problem of research


Behaviourism Stimulus-response Only observable behaviour Does not have a model of mind Scheduled reinforcement


B.F.Skinner Too little feedback and reinforcement in the classroom Programmed instruction is the solution a carefully designed course with predefined sequence of units; very small units only a small amount of new information; immediate feedback answer after filling in the missing information (reinforcement) moving on to the next unit based on the correctness of the given answer . d elivered by machine.

Computer Assisted Instruction:

Computer Assisted Instruction SuccessMaker 5 1960s partnership between Stanford University and IBM. Led to computer Curriculum Corporation. Now Pearson. SuccessMaker is an Integrated Learning System (ILS) or Learning Management System (LMS). See: Underwood J. & Brown J. (1997) Integrated Learning Systems: Potential into Practice. Oxford: Heinemann. See also Wikipedia Moodle


CAI SuccessMaker Elements in various online syllabuses – e.g. Kaleidos; MathsOnline etc.


Cognitivist Mental models Mental models and computer programs 1970: Intelligent Tutoring Systems : Adapt to the learner’s actions Little direct impact in education . Complex and expensive to make. Used in specialised, well defined training and simulation situation.

Pedagogical Agents:

Pedagogical Agents Coached problem solving Use of minimal information but contextualised hints Feedback immediate Learning by doing models



Constructivism  Constructionism:

Constructivism  Constructionism ‘Social turn’ in understanding learning Built on learning theories of Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky. We learn by constructing and re-constructing our own understanding. Problem-based; exploratory; experiential; Active learner

Principles of Constructivist Learning:

Principles of Constructivist Learning Use multiple representations of real-world settings or case-based learning not predetermined sequences of instruction; avoid oversimplification of real world complexity; emphasize authentic tasks in meaningful contexts rather than abstract instruction out of context; emphasize knowledge making instead of knowledge reproduction; s ocial collaboration and co-construction of knowledge; promote thoughtful reflection on experience as part of learning process. See here for examples




Constructionism Build an object, make it to do something. Learning through building and programming. Learn from thinking about how to get something else to think! Seymour Papert Affective dimensions : Learning through play Imaginative projection Metaphor



Social & Cultural:

Social & Cultural Vygotsky (of course) – speech and language in social groups is the foundation of learning and development. Zone of Proximal Development. Also ‘scaffolding’ (Bruner) Computing is intrinsically social – access to information beyond the locale – learning is inherently collective and shared


CoP Community of Practice (1) (2): learning outside formal settings; skills/craft-based apprenticeships; on-the-job Legitimate Peripheral Participation; E.g. Xerox Service Repair staff Organic; driven by members; co-construction of knowledge; CoP can disappears if practice goes; CoP typically based on practitioners. Distinguish form a Community of Interest (CoI) Lave, Jean; Wenger, Etienne (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Wenger, Etienne (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Socially augmented learning:

Socially augmented learning Mobile learning in role playing games, outdoor activity, etc. Mobile gaming Virtual world, MMPORG MIT Center for Mobile Learning MITAR Mobile Augmented Reality Wikipedia YouTube

Social Learning:

Social Learning

Right question?:

Right question? Computing used more as information tool than as learning tool. Relationship to information through computing is more important than specific learning processes. This is what has changed most (and is mostly beyond the classroom). ‘ Connectivism ’; JIT learning. The capacity to know more via the network (cf knowing it vs . knowing where to find out about it.

Know it or know where to find out.:

Know it or know where to find out. The capacity to know more via the network (cf knowing it vs. knowing where to find out about it .) (Prensky’s ‘ digital wisdom ’ ‘Passive retention’ vs. ‘Active augmentation’ Collective intelligence: Xerox , IBM Jam , MIT Re: difference between CoP and CoI BUT … ‘ Information obesity ’ Overload Counter knowledge No thinking time Even with all that the WWW brings we still aren’t that smart! It doesn’t just ‘happen’.


Negatives? Uncritical attitude to information – e.g. who is saying it, why, when etc. Can we learn for ourselves, independently, without. Are we less competent now than before? ‘ Information obesity ’ Overload Counter knowledge No thinking time “ Our intelligence has ended up making us stupid .” de Botton.


Evidence Lack of consistent and comparable empirical evidence. ‘ No significant difference ’ Case study based Tend to argue what should happen rather than what is happening. Empirically, very difficult to isolate variables (e.g. MOOCs …?)

Difficult to isolate variables:

D ifficult to isolate variables National Culture(s) Economic and political situation Education Technology


‘Fit’ What sort of computing does the learning task need? How well does it fit?



Digital Wisdom: Prensky:

Digital Wisdom: Prensky “Digital technology … can be used to make us not just smarter but wiser . Digital wisdom arises both from the use of digital technology and in the prudent use of technology to enhance our capabilities. In the future we will benefit from unprecedented, instant access to worldwide discussions, recorded history, massive libraries, realistic simulated experiences. How we make use of these resources, how we filter them and how technology aids us will determine the wisdom of our decisions and judgments. In a digital future, the digitally unenhanced person will not be able to access the tools of wisdom that will be available.” Quotation is liberally rewritten for presentation! See original text here: http://www.wisdompage.com/Prensky01.html Full ref: Prensky M. 2009. H . sapiens digital: From digital immigrants and digital natives to digital wisdom . Innovate 5 (3). http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=705 (accessed April 4, 2009 ).

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