semantic web by dhaval n parekh


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Semantic Web

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In simple language one type of web content That is machines understand.

Outline :

Outline History of the (Semantic) Web Semantic Web Overview Semantic Web Semantic Web Languages Semantic Web and Cased Based Reasoning Semantic Web Services Summary

History of the Semantic Web:

History of the Semantic Web Web was “invented” by Tim Berners-Lee (amongst others), a physicist working at CERN TBL’s original vision of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web. .. a goal of the Web was that, if the interaction between person and hypertext could be so intuitive that the machine-readable information space .

History (continued):

History (continued) TBL (and others) have since been working towards realising this vision, which has become known as the Semantic Web …

Semantic Web Overview :

Semantic Web Overview “ The semantic web is a major research initiative of the world wide Web consortium (WWWC) to create a metadata-rich web of resources that can describe themselves not only by how they should be displayed (HTML) or syntactically (XML), but also by the meaning of the Metadata .”

Semantic Web:

Semantic Web The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning , better enabling computers and people to work in co-operation .

Semantic Web Vision:

Semantic Web Vision

Limitations of the Web today:

Limitations of the Web today Machine-to-human, not machine-to-machine

What information can we see…:

What information can we see… WWW2002 The eleventh international world wide web conference Sheraton waikiki hotel, Honolulu, hawaii , USA 7-11 may 2002, 1 location 5 days learn interact Registered participants coming from australia , canada , chile denmark , france , germany , ghana , hongkong ,, norway , singapore , switzerland , the united kingdom,the united states, vietnam , zaire Register now On the 7 th May Honolulu will provide the backdrop of the eleventh international world wide web conference. This prestigious event.. Speakers confirmed Tim berners-lee Tim is the well known inventor of the Web, … Ian Foster Ian is the pioneer of the Grid, the next generation internet …

What information can a machine see…:

What information can a machine see… WWW2002 The eleventh international world wide web conference Sheraton waikiki hotel Honolulu, hawaii, USA 7-11 may 2002 1 location 5 days learn interact Registered participants coming from australia, canada, chile denmark, france, germany, ghana, hong kong, india, ireland, italy, japan, malta, new zealand, the netherlands, norway, singapore, switzerland, the united kingdom, the united states, vietnam, zaire

Semantic Web Languages :

Semantic Web Languages XML RDF(S) OWL

XML is a first step:

XML is a first step Semantic markup HTML  layout XML  meaning Metadata within documents, not across documents prescriptive, not descriptive No commitment on vocabulary and modelling primitives RDF is the next step

Resource Description Framework (RDF):

Resource Description Framework (RDF) A standard of W3C Relationships between documents Consisting of triples or sentences: <subject, property, verb> <Tolkien, wrote, The Lord of the Rings> RDFS extends RDF with standard “ontology vocabulary”: Class, Property Type , subclass Of domain, range


RDF and RDFS RDFS defines the ontology classes and their properties and relationships what concepts do we want to reason about and how are they related there are authors, and authors write books RDF defines the instances of these classes and their properties Mark Twain is an author Mark Twain wrote “Adventures of Tom Sawyer” “Adventures of Tom Sawyer” is a book Notation: RDF(S) = RDF + RDFS

Conclusions about RDF(S):

Conclusions about RDF(S) Next step up from plain XML: (small) ontological commitment to modeling primitives possible to define vocabulary However: no precisely described meaning no inference model

Why OWL?:

Why OWL? O W L = W eb O ntology L anguage Owl’s superior intelligence is known throughout the Hundred Acre Wood, as are his talents for Writing, Spelling, other Educated and Special tasks. "My spelling is Wobbly. It's good spelling, but it Wobbles, and the letters get in the wrong places ."

From Semantic Web to Cased Based Reasoning :

From Semantic Web to Cased Based Reasoning Developing new tools, applications and architectures on top of the Semantic Web is the real challenge. AI techniques should be used to utilize the Semantic Web up to its potentials. CBR is an AI technique based on reasoning on stored cases. CBR technique can be applied to do intelligent retrieval on metadata of codes related Earthquake Science.

Overview of Case-Based Reasoning :

Overview of Case-Based Reasoning CBR is reasoning by remembering: It is a starting point for new reasoning Problem-solving: CBR solves new problems by retrieving and adapting records from similar prior problems. Interpretive/classification: CBR understands new situations by comparing and contrasting them to similar situations in the past Case-based reasoning is a methodology of reasoning from specific experiences, which may be applied using various technologies (Watson 98) AIST Meeting JPL, CA 2003

What is CBR? :

What is CBR? Everyday Examples of CBR Remembering today’s route from the place you live to campus and taking the same route. Diagnosing a computer problem based on a similar prior problem. Predicting an opponent’s actions based on how they acted under similar past circumstances Assessing a hiring candidate by comparing and contrasting to existing employees AIST Meeting JPL, CA 2003

Semantic Web-enabled Web Services:

Semantic Web-enabled Web Services WWW static, unstructured info Web Services computational objects Semantic Web structured info SWWS - intelligent service discovery, interoperation, composition

Semantic Web Services:

Semantic Web Services Automatic discovery Find a book selling service Automatic invocation Purchase the latest Delia Smith book Automatic composition and interoperation Purchase the cheapest latest Delia Smith book Automatic execution monitoring What is the status of my book order?

Semantic Web Services - benefits:

Semantic Web Services - benefits More flexible use of internal IT systems Cost savings via software re-use Repurposing legacy systems Easier B2B integration along supply chain Software as a commodity Web-based services Usage-based charging


Summary The emergence of the Semantic Web machine-processable information Language stack: XML/RDF(S)/OWL Ontologies Semantic Web for KM next generation WWW-based KM tools ( inside ) Semantic Web for Web Services automating Web Services processes ( buy/sellside ) “… great implications for a huge range of industrial and social applications” Gartner Group, Dec 2003

References :

References W3C Semantic Web Activity Page. Available from . T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler, and O. Lassila, “The Semantic Web.” Scientific American, May 2001. Resource Description Framework (RDF)/W3C Semantic Web Activity Web Site: . D. Brickley and R. V. Guha (eds), “RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema.” W3C Working Draft 23 January 2003. The DARPA Agent Markup Language Web Site: . OIL Project Web Site:

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