Food Security

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

Food Security, the probable r

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Food Security, Poverty & Hunger the probable rescue ……………….. :

Food Security, Poverty & Hunger the probable rescue ……………….. K.D.Sharma Horticulture Officer, Deptt . of Hort. & S.C, Manipur 1

PowerPoint Presentation:

2 What we Mean by Food Security Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life Food security is concerned with: the availability of food; access to food; the stability of food supply and access (these can be affected by weather, prices, conflicts, political manipulation, etc.); and safe and healthy food use

PowerPoint Presentation:

WHAT IS NUTRITIONAL SECURITY The condition when every person has diet, nutritionally adequate in quantity as well as in quality and food consumed is biologically utilized for healthy living.

PowerPoint Presentation:

ENOUGH TO MEET THE NUTRITIONAL PYRAMID

RECOMMENDED FOOD ITEMS:

RECOMMENDED FOOD ITEMS ENOGH TO FILL A HEALTHY PLATE

PowerPoint Presentation:

6 6 Per capita Rural monthly consumption in kg (2002) India Vietnam Foodgrains 13 20.5 Dairy 3.9 0.2 Meat/poultry 1.5 3.4 Fruit/vegetables 9.5 5.8 eating out/sugar/oil 1.8 5.8 Total 29.7 35.7

Per Capita Consumption during 2004-06 (kg/year) :

7 7 Per Capita Consumption during 2004-06 (kg/year) India China US World All cereals 175.1 287.9 953 316 Meat 5.3 56.8 126.6 40.2 Milk 84.5 22.7 Na 97.8 Eggs 1.8 21.6 15.2 9.7

Food Security Challenges in the land of the Dragon & the Elephant:

Food Security Challenges in the land of the Dragon & the Elephant Dragon Elephant Trigger 1958-61: G reat Leap Forward, 30 million starvation deaths 1964-65: 2 serial droughts, PL 480 & political strings Policy Response Invst in Ag research (esp. hybrid rice) & agri-reforms Seed imports, Green Revolution (mid-1960s-1980s), White Revolution (1970s-90s) Production Impact (Paddy, wheat & maize) (NBS, 2010; MoA, 2010) 246.7 mt (1978) to 470 mt (2008) 116.7 mt (1977/78) to 249.6 mt (2008/09) Poverty Reduction Impact (WB, 2010) 30% (1978) to 15% (1984) 54.9% (1973/74) to 38.9% (1987/88) Current Challenges (share of world) Population (billions) 2008 (WB, 2010) 2030 1.3 (20%) 1.5 1.1 (17.5%) 1.6 Arable Land Agricultural Land (FAOSTAT , 2010; 2007) 10% 11.2% 11.2% 3.6% Renewable Internal Freshwater Resources flow (FAOSTAT, 2010) 6.5% 2.9% Poverty as % of Global poverty (<1.25 US$/day in 2004/05; Chen & Ravallion 2008) 15% 33% Undernourished (in 2004/06; FAO, 2010) 14.6% 28.8%

Paddy Production & Area Performance: China, India:

Paddy Production & Area Performance: China, India Source: For India: MoA, 2010 (Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2009. For China: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 (China Statistical Yearbook, 2009) Pdn=mt, Area=mha, Yield= t/ha 2008/09 2008 I-Area I-Pdn I-Yield C-Area C-P C-Yield 45.4 148.7 3.3 29.2 191.9 6.6

Maize/Corn Production & Area Performance: China, India:

Maize/Corn Production & Area Performance: China, India Source: For India: MoA, 2010 (Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2009. For China: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 (China Statistical Yearbook, 2009) Pdn=mt, Area=mha, Yield= t/ha 2008/09 2008 I-Area I-Pdn I-Yield C-Area C-P C-Yield 8.2 19.3 2.4 29.9 165.9 5.6

Per capita daily availability (grams):

11 11 Per capita daily availability (grams)

How did China Succeed??:

How did China Succeed?? Step 1. Political Will & Commitment… Research Investment (8 m. yuan in 1975- 10 m. yuan each in 1998 & 2003, 20 m. yuan in 2006) Step 2: A Visionary with Mission: Father of Hybrid Rice in China Longping Yuan led research in 14 provinces in 1970s Rice breeders: >1,000 parental lines & >300 large-scale commercialized hybrids by 1990s Pioneering Super Hybrid Rice- Yields > 10 t/ha Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

Spread of Hybrid Rice in India- limited success?:

Spread of Hybrid Rice in India- limited success? Hybrid Rice Acreage as a % of total Rice area in India Source: 1997=Virmani 1998; 2005-06=Rao 2009, 2001-03= Directorate of Rice Research Although >70% of area is currently planted to modern rice varieties (DRR, 2006) , total area under HR is only 2-3%

SOME ISSUES WE MAY CONSIDER:

SOME ISSUES WE MAY CONSIDER Taste & quality can be improved with research- China has done it Bt Rice: Move from Fiber to Food In China ( 2 008) a new GM program at US$ 3.8 billion for 2009-2020; Bt Rice approved from Nov 2009 (Huang, 2010) Bio-fortification of HR (Harvest plus, Golden Rice) & combining production & nutrition/health policy Distribution of HR via PDS, ICDS & MDMS

Creating more space for the Private sector in NFSM…:

Creating more space for the Private sector in NFSM… Seed production, multiplication & distribution already over 25 companies in HR research Extension activities Identify high potential districts where pvt sector can focus – esp. in east Treat public & private sectors alike- scope for partnerships Conditional rewards system based on performance

What else should the Elephant learn from the Dragon to ensure Food Security of the masses? Understanding the Reforms Process:

What else should the Elephant learn from the Dragon to ensure Food Security of the masses? Understanding the Reforms Process Firing Up from the Bottom Trickling Down from the Top

PowerPoint Presentation:

17 Food Insecurity Food insecurity occurs when Food is available but it does not provide a nutritious diet (e.g., mangoes only) There is not enough food for everybody – people go to bed hungry Households cannot access enough food for their members, even though there may be enough food “out there” (e.g., food prices are high, available food cannot be transported, available food is of a type that people do not use) Food reserves have become inedible

PowerPoint Presentation:

HUNGER STATUS : The United Nations estimates that about 870 million people – just over 15 percent of the world’s population – are undernourished today. The majority live in developing countries, with the largest numbers of undernourished people in China and India, and the highest prevalence of undernourishment in sub-Saharan Africa . Every day, almost 16,000 children die from hunger-related causes – one child every five seconds.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Often, the poorest members of society are unable to access food at an affordable price . The world produces enough calories to meet their nutritional needs, but they frequently lack physical or economic access to this food . Barriers include poverty, inadequate storage and transportation infrastructure, trade barriers , conflict and food safety issues.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Population growth will make the challenge of feeding everyone that much more difficult. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates the world’s population will reach 9.3 billion people by 2050 and 10.1 billion by 2100.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Degree of food scarcity

Undernourished and Death:

Undernourished and Death

The awaited meal:

The awaited meal

Malnutrition Vs Food Security:

Malnutrition Vs Food Security

School children:

School children

PowerPoint Presentation:

Table : Percent of underweight children under age of 3 years Under nutrition in 1998 – 99 Rural Urban All Andhra Pradesh 42.0 28.7 38.7 Assam 37.2 27.3 36.6 Bihar 55.8 47.7 55.0 Goa 30.4 27.1 29.3 Gujarat 50.1 39.4 46.0 Haryana 36.5 31.3 35.3 Himachal Pradesh 46.2 30.4 45.0 Jammu & Kashmir 37.7 21.3 35.0 Karnataka 47.2 39.0 44.6 Kerala 28.6 22.4 27.4 Madhya Pradesh 59.0 44.8 55.7 Maharashta 54.6 44.9 50.7 Manipur 28.6 27.3 28.2 Meghalaya 38.9 37.6 38.7 Mizoram 32.7 21.9 27.5 Nagaland 25.6 18.1 24.3 Orissa 56.4 45.5 55.2 Punjab 32.8 19.1 29.6 Rajasthan 52.5 46.6 51.2 Sikkim 20.6 23.5 20.9 Tamil Nadu 39.4 34.6 37.2 West Bengal 53.5 33.0 49.7 Uttar Pradesh 54.5 43.3 42.6 New Delhi 52.6 32.8 34.7 Arunachal Pradesh 26.8 19.5 24.7 All India 50.5 39.0 47.8 Notes: Children with weight below 2 Standard Deviations from median value of the

PowerPoint Presentation:

28

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rice 97.99 118.93 Wheat 72.07 92.37 Other Cereals 14.11 15.57 All Cereals 181.12 221.11 Pulses 14.58 19.53 Food grains 195.69 240.64 Milk & Milk Prod. 106.43 165.84 Edible Oils 7.67 10.94 Meat and Fish 7.25 10.80 Sugar & Gur 17.23 25.07 Fruits & Vegetables 75.21 113.17 2010 2020 Rice 97.99 118.93 Wheat 72.07 92.37 Other Cereals 14.11 15.57 All Cereals 181.12 221.11 Pulses 14.58 19.53 Food grains 195.69 240.64 Milk & Milk Prod. 106.43 165.84 Edible Oils 7.67 10.94 Meat and Fish 7.25 10.80 Sugar & Gur 17.23 25.07 Fruits & Vegetables 75.21 113.17 TABLE: PROJECTIFON OF HOUSEHOLDS FOOD DEMAND- ALL INDIA (million tons per annum)

PowerPoint Presentation:

To meet the world’s increasing demand for food, an anticipated 70-percent boost in global food production will be necessary by 2050. To protect the environment, most of the growth in food production will need to come from increased yields and productivity rather than from the use of additional land – a challenge met in prior years.

PowerPoint Presentation:

As populations continue to rise, so do the pressures on land use and the challenge of protecting high conservation value forest areas and biodiversity . Advances in technology and innovation will be required to achieve another phase of the “Green Revolution” in agricultural production and produce the significant yield increases needed to boost global food production sustainably.

Bio pressure over natural forest:

Bio pressure over natural forest

Global Warming & Climate Change:

Global Warming & Climate Change

Worldwide Carbon Emissions:

Worldwide Carbon Emissions Carbon (10 9 metric tons) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year Liquid fuel Total Gas fuel Solid fuel

Raising Earth Temperature:

Sun Raising Earth Temperature Solar Energy Radiation Cooling

Unpredictable Agro-climate:

Unpredictable Agro-climate

PowerPoint Presentation:

The greatest challenge is Achieving Food Security in the Face of Climate Change

Draught/ Flood:

Draught/ Flood

High occurrence Disease & Pest Natural Disaster :

High occurrence Disease & Pest Natural Disaster

PowerPoint Presentation:

Famine Or Hunger

Global Hunger Today:

Global Hunger Today But the reality seems to get worse Every day 25,000 people die because of hunger and poverty – more than nine million a year or 1,000 an hour Every five seconds a child dies because she or he is hungry 854 million people do not have enough to eat – more than the populations of USA, Canada and the European Union combined The number of chronically hungry people worldwide is growing by an average of four million a year 41

PowerPoint Presentation:

42 Some Current Issues Relating to Food Security The global financial meltdown Rising prices Climate change The growing focus on biofuels Technological innovations and GMOs Responding to the food and nutrition needs of the poor in both urban and rural areas Establishing comprehensive social protection for children, women, the needy and the elderly HIV & AIDS highlight, magnify and complicate the scale and complexity of these issues

PowerPoint Presentation:

There is wide geographic variation in crop and livestock productivity, even across regions that experience similar climates. The difference between realized productivity and the best that can be achieved using current genetic material and available technologies and management is termed the “yield gap.” The best yields that can be obtained locally depend on the capacity of farmers to access and use, among other things, seeds, water, nutrients, pest management, soils, biodiversity, and knowledge.

PowerPoint Presentation:

It has been estimated that in those parts of Southeast Asia where irrigation is available, average maximum climate-adjusted rice yields are 8.5 metric tons per hectare, yet the average actually achieved yields are 60% of this figure . Similar yield gaps are found in rain-fed wheat in central Asia and rain-fed cereals in Argentina and Brazil.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Food security challenges: Is Biotechnology to the rescue. . . . ?

PowerPoint Presentation:

How can one help to

PowerPoint Presentation:

Thank you very much

authorStream Live Help