Psychology Unit 10 Mood Disorders

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Unit 10 – Mood Disorders : 

Unit 10 – Mood Disorders AP® Psychology from a Christian Worldview

Slide 2: 

“My life had come to a sudden stop. I was able to breathe, to eat, to drink, to sleep. I could not, indeed, help doing so; but there was no real life in me.” ~Leo Tolstoy, My Confession, 1887

Mood Disorders : 

Mood Disorders E.Q. “What are mood disorders, and what forms do they take?” Two principal forms: Major Depressive Disorder Bipolar Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder : 

Major Depressive Disorder The person experiences: Prolonged hopelessness Lethargy Can rebound to normality Seasonal affective disorder: reoccurring depression during winter’s dark months. Deeply discouraged about the future Dissatisfied with life Feelings of isolation

Major Depressive Disorder cont. : 

Major Depressive Disorder cont. Unable to concentrate, eat, or sleep normally May even have suicidal thoughts Depression is the “common cold” of psychological disorders. The number one reason people seek mental health services. Is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Worldwide in any given year 5.8% of men and 9.5% of women report depression.

Major Depressive Disorder cont. : 

Major Depressive Disorder cont. Depressed mood is often a response to past or current loss. Some depression is normal and being in touch with reality. Depression works to slow us down, defuse aggression, and restrain risk taking. Allows time to ruminate and reassess. There is a sense to suffering.

Major Depressive Disorder cont. : 

Major Depressive Disorder cont. Signs of Major Depressive Disorder (lasting two or more weeks): Lethargy Feelings of worthlessness Loss of interest in family, friends or activities

Bipolar Disorder : 

Bipolar Disorder Signs of Major Depressive Disorder (lasting two or more weeks): Lethargy Feelings of worthlessness Loss of interest in family, friends or activities

Bipolar Disorder : 

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder : 

Bipolar Disorder Formerly called manic-depressive disorder Alternates between depression and mania (an overexcited, hyperactive state). Manic: Euphoric Hyperactive Wildly optimistic Overtalkative, overactive and elated Easily irritated

Bipolar Disorder : 

Bipolar Disorder Manic cont: Little need for sleep Fewer sexual inhibitions Speech is loud, flighty, and hard to interrupt Grandiose optimism and self-esteem Find advice irritating Need protection from own poor judgement Can fuel creativity

Explaining Mood Disorders : 

Explaining Mood Disorders E.Q. “What causes mood disorders, and what might explain the Western world’s rising incidence of depression among youth and young adults?” Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression. Are inactive and feel unmotivated. Sensitive to negative happenings. More often recall negative information. Expect negative outcomes.

Explaining Mood Disorders cont. : 

Explaining Mood Disorders cont. 50% exhibit symptoms of another disorder: anxiety or substance abuse. Depression is widespread. It’s causes must be widespread too. Compared to men, women are nearly twice as vulnerable to major depression. Women are most vulnerable to disorders involving internalized states. Men’s disorders tend to be more external.

Explaining Mood Disorders cont. : 

Explaining Mood Disorders cont. Most major depressive episodes self-terminate. Therapy tends to speed recovery. Most people return to normal. Can reoccur later. Stressful events related to work, marriage, and close relationships often precede depression.

Explaining Mood Disorders cont. : 

Explaining Mood Disorders cont. With each new generation, depression is striking earlier and affecting more people. Often late teens.

The Biological Perspective : 

The Biological Perspective Depression is a whole-body disorder. Genetic dispositions. Biochemical imbalances. Negative thoughts. Melancholy mood.

The Biological Perspective cont. : 

The Biological Perspective cont. Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run in families. Risk increases if a parent or sibling have the disorder. The Depressed Brain: Less activity in the brain during depression. More activity during mania. Neurotransmitters play a role; norepiephrine and serotonin.

The Social-Cognitive Perspective : 

The Social-Cognitive Perspective Focuses attention on the roles of thinking and acting. Depressed people view life as “dark”. They have negative assumptions about themselves, their situation, and their future. Magnify bad experiences and minimize good ones. Self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory style.

The Social-Cognitive Perspective cont. : 

The Social-Cognitive Perspective cont. Negative Thoughts and Negative Moods Interact: Self-defeating beliefs may arise from learned helplessness. Learned helplessness is more common in women. Women may be more at risk because of their tendency to over-think and ruminate. Women often have vivid recall for both wonderful and horrid experiences.

The Social-Cognitive Perspective cont. : 

The Social-Cognitive Perspective cont. Explanatory Style and Depression: Whether a person is depressed depends on who or what they blame for failures. Depression prone people respond to bad events in a self-focused, self-blaming way. Their self-esteem fluctuates more rapidly up with boosts and down with threats.

Explanatory Style Example : 

Explanatory Style Example Romantic Breakup Stable “I’ll never get over this.” Global “Without my partner, I can’t seem to do anything right.” Internal “Our breakup was all my fault.” Depression Temporary “This is hard, but I will get through it.” Specific “I miss my partner, but I’m thankful for family and friends.” External “It takes two to make a relationship work. It wasn’t meant to be” Successful Coping

The Social-Cognitive Perspective cont. : 

The Social-Cognitive Perspective cont. Explanatory Style and Depression cont: Recipe for severe depression is preexisting pessimism encountering failure. More common is Western culture.

Depression’s Vicious Cycle : 

Depression’s Vicious Cycle Depressed people are at high risk for divorce, job loss, and other stressful events. The loss and stress compound the original depression. Rejection and depression feed each other. Misery may love another’s company, but company does not love another’s misery.

Depression’s Vicious Cycle Cont: : 

Depression’s Vicious Cycle Cont: Stressful experiences Depressed mood Negative explanatory style Cognitive and behavioral changes

Biopsychosocial Approach : 

Biopsychosocial Approach Biological influences: Genetic predispositions Changes in brain chemistry Brain damage due to stress and other factors Psychological influences: Negative explanatory style Learned helplessness Gender differences Depressed Mood Social-cultural influences: Traumatic/negative events Cultural expectations Depression-evoked responses