Medicinal plants

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Medicinal plants :

Medicinal plants Presented by Deepak Kumar Kushwaha 10 th B ( 2 nd shift )

ASHWAGANDHA ( Withania somnifera ):

ASHWAGANDHA ( Withania somnifera )

Scientific classification :

Scientific classification Kingdom : Plantae Subkingdom : Tracheobionta Division : Magnoliophyta Class : Magnoliopsida Subclass : Asteridae Order : Solanales Family : Solanaceae Genus : Withania Species : W. somnifera

Withania somnifera:

Withania somnifera Withania somnifera , also known as ashwagandha , Indian ginseng , or winter cherry, is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family. Several other species in the genus Withania are morphologically similar. It is used as a herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is considered as an adaptogen that stimulates the immune system and improves the memory.

Introduction :

Introduction Ashwagandha has been used as a sedative, a diuretic, a rejuvenating tonic, an anti-inflammatory agent, aphrodisiac and an immune booster. It is especially beneficial in stress related disorders such as arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, general debility, etc. It has also shown impressive results when used as stimulants for the immune system. It is considered as an adaptogen that stimulates the immune system and improves the memory.

Etymology :

Etymology Ashwagandha in Sanskrit means "horse's smell" ( ashwa - horse, gandha - smell), probably originating from the odour of its root which resembles that of a sweaty horse The species name somnifera means "sleep-inducing" in Latin.

Description :

Description It grows as a short shrub (35–75 cm) with a central stem from which branches extend radially in a star pattern (stellate) and covered with a dense matte of wooly hairs (tomentose). The flowers are small and green, while the ripe fruit is orange-red and has milk-coagulating properties. The plant's long, brown, tuberous roots are used for medicinal purposes.

Health benefits of Ashwagandha:

Health benefits of Ashwagandha Ashwagandha increases the count of white blood cells and prepares the body to produce antigens against various infections and allergies. It is also considered as a tonic for the heart and lungs as its regular intake controls the blood pressure and regulates the heartbeat. It has a strong nourishing and protective effect on the nervous system. It works as anti-inflammatory substance therefore helps in reducing swellings and restoring blood supply. - It relieves stress due to presence of vata suppressant properties which helps in nurturing nervous system.

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- It helps in promoting calmness and mental satisfaction in mind due to its good penetrating powers, which helps to counter negative adaptogens. It has an excellent healing properties therefore has great effects in healing wounds and injuries. - It helps in relieving from the feel of numbness and burning sensation in extremities. - It helps in providing nourishment to the brain for its better function and greater ability to work. - It improves mental ability, helps in gaining retaining power and improves mental concentration. - Ashwagandha revitalizes body and decreases untimely fatigue caused due weak body strength accumulation of negative energies in the body

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. - It works as a rasayan i.e. a substance that helps in preventing early aging and rejuvenates whole body to provide youth. - It works as powerful immune booster that helps in fighting any foreign invasion in the body - It is a powerful aphrodisiac thereby helps in enhancing the sexual powers and long lasting endurance. - It also helps in increasing sperm count and also the quality of sperms. - It gives good results in leucorrhoea, as it possesses the properties that suppress kapha. - It is also useful in upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and in asthmatic conditions.

Magic of roots of Ashwagandha:

Magic of roots of Ashwagandha The roots of ashwagandha are used medicinally. Ashwagandha provides energy and a rejuvenating lift while at the same time offering a calming effect. The chemical components in ashwagandha are remarkably similar to those found in ginseng, and yet studies have demonstrated its superiority in stress-relieving abilities when compared to its Chinese cousin. Ayurvedic healers have long prescribed the herb to treat exhaustion caused by both physical and mental strain, and scientific research has recently borne out this practice. Ashwagandha enjoys the reputation in the West as an aphrodisiac, a use supported by a recent study in which more than 70 percent of men reported increased libido and sexual function after taking the herb.

About Ashwagandha:

About Ashwagandha Ashwagandha is an herb used in Ayurvedic medicine for a number of health conditions. Known by the botanical name withania somnifera, it is a popular medicinal plant in South East Asia and Southern Europe. Many people use this herb for general vitality, although the effects are not similar to ginseng. . Rather than providing restless energy as does ginseng, ashwagandha often causes relaxation.

Benefits of Ashwagandha:

Benefits of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera is widely considered as the Indian ginseng. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a rasayana (rejuvenation) and expected to promote physical and mental health, rejuvenate the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. . Ashwagandha is used to treat a number of disorders that affect human health including central nervous system (CNS) disorders, particularly in epilepsy, stress and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disorders, tardive dyskinesia, cerebral ischemia, and even in the management of drug addiction. The most useful usage is to reduce stress and perhaps aid in sleep. However, if you take a high dosage or a concentrated extract, you may not notice the relaxation effect as much.

Composition and chemistry:

Composition and chemistry Withania somnifera root has withanolides along with beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside, stigmasterol glucoside, and alpha+beta glucose. Some of the withanolides include .

Side affects and risks:

Side affects and risks Short term ashwagandha side effects include sleepiness and drowsiness. However, some products may cause alertness. There appears to be some variations in effects between different products on the market. This may be due to the dosage, extract potencies, or manufacturing and processing differences.    There have not been enough human studies to know the full extent of ashwagandha side effects if used daily for months or years.

Human studies:

Human studies Depression treatment Ashawagandha does not appear to be an effective herb for depression. Assessing depression following two ancient Indian interventions: effects of yoga and ayurveda on older adults in a residential home The effects of yoga and ayurveda on geriatric depression were evaluated in 69 persons older than 60 who were living in a residential home Participants were stratified by age and gender and randomly allocated to three groups: Yoga, Ayurveda, or Wait-list Control. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms prior to the intervention, and after 3 months and 6 months post-intervention.

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Participation in one of the three groups lasted 24 weeks. The yoga program (7 hours 30 minutes per week) included physical postures, relaxation techniques, regulated breathing, devotional songs, and lectures. The Ayurveda Group received an herbal preparation twice daily for the whole period. The depression symptom scores of the Yoga Group at both 3 and 6 months decreased significantly, from a group average baseline of 10 to 8 and 6, respectively. The other groups showed no change. Hence, an integrated approach of yoga including the mental and philosophical aspects in addition to the physical practices was useful for institutionalized older persons.

Animal studies:

DIABETES AND METAFORMIN Amelioration of metformin-induced hypothyroidism by Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea extracts in Type 2 diabetic mice. An investigation was carried out to reveal the possible ameliorative role of two plant extracts on an antidiabetic drug-induced hypothyroidism in Type 2 diabetic animals. Oral administration with either Withania somnifera or Bauhinia purpurea extract along with dexamethasone and metformin elevated the concentrations of circulating T(3) and T(4) to euthyroid level. The plant extracts also corrected RR ratio and serum concentration of lipids. Our findings reveal that the evaluated plant extracts have a potential to ameliorate metformin-induced hypothyroidism in Type 2 diabetic subjects. Animal studies

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Kidney disease Effect of extract of Withania Somnifera on dehydration-induced oxidative stress-related uremia in male rats. Dehydration or water deprivation in the body decreases urinary excretion and allows urea and other protein waste products to accumulate in the blood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of uremia and oxidative stress by applying the herbal plant Withania somnifera. The study was performed on male Wister strain rats in which, dehydration was achieved by water withdrawal. Dehydration-induced oxidative stress was established in our study by noting the low activities of super-oxide dismutase and catalase, both important antioxidant enzymes, in Group-2 animals; both enzymes were stabilized in animals of Groups-3 and 1. In conclusion, it is hypothesized that there is an antioxidative role of W. somnifera resulting in reducing the extent of renal injury as a result of oxidative stress.

In vitro studies:

In vitro studies CANCER Immune modulation and apoptosis induction: Two sides of antitumoural activity of a standardised herbal formulation of Withania somnifera. in this study a chemically standardised herbal formulation of Withania somnifera possessing anticancer and Th1 immune up-regulatory activities. Withania somnifera produced cytotoxicity in a panel of human cancer cell lines in vitro. The molecular mechanism of cell cytotoxicity was investigated in HL-60, where it induced apoptosis by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic signalling pathways

In vitro studies:

In vitro studies It induced early generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS), thus producing oxidative stress mediated mitochondrial membrane potential loss leading to the release of cytochrome c, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria and apoptosis-inducing factor to the nuclei. . Withania somnifera also activated caspase-8 through enhanced expression of TNF-R1 and DR-4, suggesting also the involvement of extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Withania somnifera at 150mg/kg, i.p., inhibited >50% tumour growth in the mouse tumour models. Different parts of plant species belonging to Solanaceae and Fabaceae families were screened for L-asparaginase enzyme. Among 34 plant species screened for L-asparaginase enzyme, Withania somnifera L. was identified as a potential source of the enzyme. This is the first report for L-asparaginase from W. somnifera, a traditionally used Indian medicinal plant.

In vitro studies:

In vitro studies In tumour-bearing mice, Withania somnifera inhibited the expression of pStat-3, with a selective stimulation of Th1 immunity as evidenced by enhanced secretion of IFN-gamma and IL-2. In addition, Withania somnifera also enhanced T cell activation in camptothecin treated tumour-bearing mice. WSF being safe when given orally up to 1500mg/kg to rats for 6 months may be found useful in the management of malignancy by targeting at multiple pathways.

Use with natural supplements:

Use with natural supplements BACOPA MONNIERIE - Ashwagandha can be taken in the evening while bacopa monnieri pills are taken in the morning. CDP Choline - The herb can be taken in the evening while bacopa pills are taken in the morning. FROSKOLIN OR COLEUS FORSKOHELII - Withania can be taken in the evening while forskolin pills are taken in the morning. Valerian root - Ashwagandha root can be used together with valerian herb.

Cultivation :

Cultivation Withania somnifera is cultivated in many of the drier regions of India, such as Mandsaur district of Madhya Pradesh , Punjab , Sindh and Rajasthan. It is also found in Nepal.

Climatic conditions for growth:

Climatic conditions for growth Withania somnifera is grown as late rainy-season ( kharif ) crop. Semitropical areas receiving 500 to 750 mm rainfall are suitable for its cultivation as a rainfed crop. If one or two winter rains are received, then root development improves. The crop requires a relatively dry season during its growing period. It can tolerate a temperature range of 20 to 38°C and as low a temperature as 10°C. The plant grows from sea level to an altitude of 1500 meters.

Pathology :

Pathology Withania somnifera is prone to several pests and diseases. Leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata is the most prevalent disease, which is most severe in the plainsof punjab madhya pradesh ,& himachal pradesh . Biodeterioration of its pharmaceutically active components during leaf spot disease has been reported. Oxyrachis tarandus (a treehopper/cowbug species) feeds on the apical portions of the stem, making them rough and woody in appearance and brown in colour. The apical leaves are shed and the plant gradually dies away . Carmine red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) is the most prevalent pest of Withania somnifera in India.

Culinary use:

Culinary use The berries can be used as a substitute for rennet to coagulate milk in cheese – making.

Medicinal use :

Medicinal use The main active constituents are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. These include tropine and cuscohygrine . The leaves contain the steroidal lactones ,withanolides , notably withaferin A , which was the first withanolide to be isolated from W. somnifera .

Traditional medicinal uses of Ashwagandha :

Traditional medicinal uses of Ashwagandha In Ayurveda, the berries and leaves of W. somnifera are locally applied to tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and ulcers. The roots of W. somnifera are used to prepare the herbal remedy ashwagandha, which has been traditionally used to treat various symptoms and conditions.

Tumour growth:

Tumour growth Recent research in mice indicates that withaferin A has anti-metastatic activity.

Alzheimer's dementia:

Alzheimer's dementia The effect of a semipurified root extract of W. somnifera containing mostly withanolides was investigated using a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The transgenic mice showed reversal of behavioral deficits and plaque load after treatment with the extract for 30 days

Side effects:

Side effects In two published clinical trials of W. somnifera , the side effects were not significantly different from those experienced by placebo-treated individuals. A case report implicated ashwaganda as the cause of thyrotoxicosis in a 32-year old female who had taken ashwaganada extract capsules for symptoms of chronic fatigue

Arnica Arnica montana:

Arnica Arnica montana

Scientific classification:

Scientific classification Kingdom : Plantae (unranked) : Angiosperms (unranked) : Eudicots (unranked) : Asterids Order : Asterals Family : Asteraceae Subfamily : Asteroideae Tribe : Heliantheae Subtribe : Madiinae Genus : Arnica Arnica montana

Arnica :

Arnica Arnica (English pronunciation: /ˈɑrnɨkə/ ) is a genus with about 30 perennial , herbaceous species, belonging to the sunflower family ( Asteraceae ). The genus name Arnica may be derived from the Greek arna, "lamb," in reference to the soft, hairy leaves. This circumboreal and montane (subalpine) genus occurs mostly in the temperate regions of western North America while two are native to Eurasia (A. angustifolia and A. montana). Arnica used to be included in the tribe Senecioneae because it has a flower or pappus of fine bristles. This was soon questioned and Nordenstam (1977) placed it tentatively in tribe Heliantheae s.l. [ citation needed ] This arrangement also became uncertain because of the sesquiterpene lactone chemistry in certain species. Lately Arnica was placed in an unresolved clade together with Madiinae , Eupatorieae , Heliantheae s.s. and Pectidinae

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Several species, such as Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis, contain helenalin , a sesquiterpene lactone that is a major ingredient in anti-inflammatory preparations (used mostly for bruises). Arnica species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Bucculatrix arnicella . Arnica is also known by the names Mountain Tobacco and, somewhat confusingly, Leopard's bane and Wolfsbane - two names that it shares with the entirely separate genus Aconitum .

Characteristics :

Characteristics They have a deep-rooted, erect stem , that is usually unbranched. Their downy, opposite leaves are borne towards the apex of the stem. The ovoid, leathery, basal leaves are arranged in a rosette.  They show large yellow or orange flowers , 6–8 cm wide with 10-15 long ray florets and numerous disc florets. The phyllaries (a bract under the flowerhead) has long spreading hairs Each phyllary is associated with a ray floret. Species of Arnica, with an involucre (a circle of bracts arranged surrounding the flower head) arranged in two rows, have only their outer phyllaries associated with ray florets. The flowers have a slight aromatic smell. If taken the wrong dose it can be very dangerous. The seedlike fruit has a pappus of plumose, white or pale tan bristles. The entire plant has a strong and distinct pine-sage odor when the leaves of mature plants are rubbed or bruised.

Arnica montana:

Arnica montana The species Arnica montana, native to Europe , has long been used medicinally, but this use has not been substantiated.

Medicinal uses:

Medicinal uses Arnica montana has been used medicinally for centuries, however there are no scientific studies that prove the medical effectiveness. The roots contain derivatives of thymol , which are used as fungicides and preservatives . Arnica is currently used in liniment and ointment preparations used for strains , sprains , and bruises . Commercial Arnica preparations are frequently used by professional athletes. The thymol derivatives concentrated in the plants roots have been clinically shown to be effective vasodilators of subcutaneous blood capillaries. A study of wound-healing after surgery to treat varicose veins found a trend towards a beneficial effect of reduction of pain and hematoma following surgery.

Toxicity :

Toxicity Arnica contains the toxin helenalin , which can be poisonous if large amounts of the plant are eaten, and contact with the plant can also cause skin irritation. If enough of the material is ingested, the toxin helenalin produces severe gastroenteritis, and internal bleeding of the digestive tract. Homeopathic preparations of Arnica 24X dilution or more are not toxic as negligible amounts of Arnica remains.

Homeopathy :

Homeopathy Homeopathic preparations of Arnica are widely marketed and used. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency has registered the product for sprains and bruising under the National Rules for Homoeopathic Products (2006) . These rules allow claims of efficacy for these conditions to be made on the packaging in the absence of similar evidence to that required for conventional medicines under the Medicines Act 1968 and 1971. [12] A systematic review of clinical trials showed that homeopathic Arnica was no more effective than a placebo . [13] In some quarters, the fact that homeopathic Arnica has been the subject of published clinical trials at all has drawn criticism grounded on the allegation that the basic premise of the high dilutions used in homeopathy would be inherently flawed.

Species of Arnica:

Species of Arnica Arnica acaulis (Walt.) B.S.P. -- Common Leopardbane Arnica alpina (L.) Olin—Alpine Arnica (synonym of Arnica angustifolia subsp. alpina ) Arnica amplexicaulis Nutt. -- Clasping Arnica, Streambank Arnica (synonym of Arnica lanceolata subsp. amplexicaulis ) Arnica angustifolia Vahl—Narrowleaf Arnica Arnica angustifolia subsp. alpina (L.) I. K. Ferguson Arnica angustifolia subsp. tomentosa Downie & Denford Arnica cernua T.J. Howell—Serpentine Arnica Arnica chamissonis Less. -- Chamisso Arnica Arnica chamissonis subsp. foliosa (Nutt.) Maguire Arnica cordifolia Hook. -- Heart-leaf Leopardbane, Heartleaf Arnica Arnica dealbata Baldwin (formerly Whitneya dealbata ) Arnica discoidea Benth. -- Rayless Arnica

Species of Arnica:

Species of Arnica Arnica × diversifolia Greene (pro sp.) -- Curtis Churchmouse Threeawn, Rayless Arnica, Sticky Arnica Arnica frigida C.A. Mey. ex Iljin—Snow Arnica (synonym of A rnica griscomii subsp. frigida ) Arnica fulgens Pursh—Foothill Arnica, Orange Arnica, Shining Leopardbane Arnica × gracilis Rydb. -- Smallhead Arnica (a natural hybrid between A. latifolia and A. cordifolia ) Arnica griscomii Fernald Arnica griscomii subsp. frigida (C. A. Mey. ex Iljin) S. J. Wolf Arnica griscomii subsp. griscomii Arnica lanceolata Nutt. -- Arnica, Lanceleaf Arnica Arnica lanceolata subsp. amplexicaulis (Nutt.) Gruezo & Denford Arnica lanceolata subsp. lanceolata Gruezo & Denford

Species of Arnica:

Species of Arnica Arnica latifolia Bong. -- Broadleaf Arnica Arnica lessingii (Torr. & Gray) Greene—Nodding Arnica Arnica lessingii subsp. lessengii Arnica lessingii subsp. norbergii Hult. & Maguire Arnica lonchophylla Greene—Longleaf Arnica Arnica lonchophylla subsp. arnoglossa (Greene) Maguire Arnica lonchophylla subsp. lonchophylla Arnica longifolia D.C. Eat. -- Longleaf Arnica, Spearleaf Arnica Arnica louiseana Farr—Lake Louise Arnica Arnica mallotopus (formerly Mallotopus japonicus ) Arnica mollis Hook. -- hairy arnica, wooly arnica Arnica montana L. -- Mountain Arnica

Species of Arnica:

Species of Arnica Arnica nevadensis Gray—Nevada Arnica Arnica ovata Greene Arnica parryi Gray—Nodding Arnica, Parry's Arnica Arnica rydbergii Greene—Rydberg Arnica, Rydberg's Arnica, Subalpine Arnica Arnica sachalinensis (Regel) A. Gray Arnica sororia Greene—Twin Arnica Arnica spathulata Greene—Klamath Arnica Arnica unalaschcensis Less. -- Alaska Arnica Arnica venosa Hall—Shasta County Arnica Arnica viscosa Gray—Mt. Shasta Arnica

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