Buissness Writing Process

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Basic Business Writing : 

Basic Business Writing

Objectives : 

Objectives To teach students that business letters are not the only type of business writings they may have to create. To teach students that business writing is technical writing required in the workplace. To prepare students to format two types of workplace documents: memos and formal reports.

First, What is Business Writing? : 

First, What is Business Writing? Business writing is workplace writing, which is a form of technical writing. Workplace writing is generally “persuasive” writing. Example 1: A Resume to persuade a potential employer to offer an interview Example 2: A Findings Report to persuade employees to follow certain policies or procedures in order to improve performance or correct errors or problems.

Some Types of Workplace Writings : 

Some Types of Workplace Writings Business Letters (most common – formal letter to an external recipient) E-mail Transmissions (A more informal business message than a business letter that is sent electronically to one or more recipients, within or external to the business). Memoranda /memorandum (A more informal style of a business letter that is usually sent to one or more business colleagues employed within the same business unit or company) Reports (financial, audit, or statistical report that identifies the specific problem and presents collected data, research, or recommendations for the change process (re-engineering process.) Contracts (binding agreements or proposals between two or more parties that can become legal documents if they include an offer that is accepted.) Manuals (a written set of instructions, procedures or policies) PowerPoint (a soft-ware generated, visual slide show, with animation options, that hosts a set of notes or bulleted points, an agenda, or other information that supports a discussion).

General Business Tip . . . : 

General Business Tip . . . Generally, it is an expected and common business practice to keep photocopies / hard (paper) copies of any communication you send to another person regarding any business matter.

Slide 6: 

Business Writing is technical communication or technical writing.

Business Writing: Technical or Workplace Writing. : 

Business Writing: Technical or Workplace Writing. Definition of Technical Writing: Writing that “transfers information about a situation, product, service, or concept . . . to audiences of varying levels of technical knowledge, so that each member of the audience clearly understands the message. The word “technical” means skilled, specialized, and strict. Technical writing follows rules and protocols.

How to Create Effective Technical or Workplace Writings: : 

How to Create Effective Technical or Workplace Writings: Focus on the purpose of your writing Focus on your readers (Audience) Satisfy document requirements (Documentation style; visuals; data) Get to the point. (Concise, uncluttered sentences) Provide accurate information (Research) Present your material logically Express yourself clearly (Grammar; Proofreading) Use efficient wording (Word Choice) Make your ideas accessible (Clarity) Use lists for some information (organized bullets) Format your pages carefully (be neat and leave white space) Manage your time efficiently (Meet deadlines)

Pay attention to Word Choice : 

Pay attention to Word Choice The following is a short list of common word choice mistakes to watch out for in business writing. affect, effect -- Affect is usually a verb meaning "to influence." Effect is usually a noun meaning "result." The drug did not affect the disease, and it had several adverse side effects. Effect can also be a verb meaning "to bring about." Only the president can effect such a dramatic change.   a lot -- A lot is two words. Do not write alot. We have had a lot of rain this year. Data -- Data is the plural for datum, which means "a fact or proposition." New data suggest (not suggests) that our theory is correct. The singular (datum) is rarely used. (the words media and staff also are treated as plural nouns)

Pay attention to Word Choice (cont.) : 

Pay attention to Word Choice (cont.) farther, further -- Farther describes distances. Iowa City is farther from Chicago than I thought. Further suggests degree. You extended the curfew further than you should have. Firstly -- Firstly sounds pretentious, and it leads to the ungainly series firstly, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, and so on. Write first, second, third instead. kind of, sort of -- Avoid using kind of or sort of to mean "somewhat." The movie was a little (not kind of ) boring. Do not put an a after either phrase. That kind of (not kind of a) salesclerk annoys me.

Slide 11: 

Pay attention to Word Choice (cont.) principal, principle -- Principal is a noun meaning "the head of a school or organization" Or "a sum of money." It is also an adjective or meaning "most important." Principle is a noun meaning "a basic truth or law." Example: The principal expelled her for violating several principles expressed in the school handbook. Example: We believe in the principle of equal justice for all. regardless, irregardless -- Irregardless is nonstandard. Use regardless. Example: Regardless of what you think, “conversated” is slang and the correct word is “conversed.”   try and -- Try and is nonstandard for try to. The teacher asked us all to try to (not try and) write an original haiku.

Formatting a . . . : 

Formatting a . . . Business Memo

What should you know about Business Memos? They . . . : 

What should you know about Business Memos? They . . . almost always are used within an organization usually are informal in style normally function as a non-sensitive communication are short and to-the-point have a direct tone / language have a business tone / no slang or jokes do not require a salutation (formal greeting) do not have a complimentary closing as does a business letter (END) have a format very different from a business letter may address one person or a group of individuals Examples: To: Mr. John Doe, CEO of Pepsi or To: All Student Support Services Participants

Memo Sample 1 : 

Memo Sample 1 College of Business Administration Business Communication     Memorandum To:         CBA Students From:     Dale Coattail Date:     September 10, 2007 Re:         How to Write a Memo   Your instructor has asked you to write a memo, which is the most common form of written communication in business. In order to perform this task successfully, you should conform to general business standards of content, format, structure and language use. Regarding Content, the first rule of writing a good memo is "Get to the point!" The second rule is "Know what your purpose is." Before you start writing, be sure that you know what your "answer" is to the boss's or colleague's question. Don't include all your thinking in the memo. While several pages of thinking might get written as you come up with the answer, the memo includes only the answer. Citations, financials, or justifications that must be available to the reader can be added as appendices or written as a separate, formal report. The memo should include only those ideas that are required for the reader's action or decision. Format This memo is an example of memo format. Note especially the routing information, the use of headings, and the single spaced block paragraphs.  If your memo looks like a memo, there's a better chance a business reader will take your ideas seriously.  If you are working in a CBA lab, the easiest way to duplicate the proper memo format is to use a template.  (Select "new" from the File MENU and select the "memo" tab on the dialogue box.)    Structure The typical memo is only 2 or 3 paragraphs and fits on one page. The first paragraph summarizes the gist of the whole memo, then the main points are covered in the same order they were previewed. Again, this memo provides an example of the typical structure. Language Use A memo is often less formal than a letter, but should still be written with a businesslike tone. You can be friendly, but not cute. Your professional image depends on perfect spelling and grammar, but you can usually get away with a few "down home" expressions. Edit for wordiness and get directly to the point. Use language to communicate your ideas effectively and efficiently. (END) cc:          Your Instructor Executive Summary or Introduction Headings w/ routing information Special notation Start the Body / Body Headings

Memo Sample -- Practice Exercise : 

Memo Sample -- Practice Exercise Directions: Label four parts of the sample memo you have been provided. Answers Below Headings w/ Routing Information Executive Summary or Introduction Start of the Body / Body Headings Special Notation: Attachments, Carbon Copies, etc.

In short, for a Business Memo . . . : 

In short, for a Business Memo . . . Use block format (no indents). Single space the text. Use 10 or 12 point font size. Business may require use of letterhead. Margins may vary, depending on letterhead style of if letterhead has a business address side bar, as this example shows. BODY OF THE MEMO Memorandum (heading) To: From: Reference or Subject: Start the introduction or provide an executive summary (depending on type of memo). You do not necessarily have to label this part. Present main body of the memo with labeled parts. You may provide some indication of the end of the memo (END)

Slide 17: 

Center for Student Success XYZ-Student Support Services 109 ABC DELHI, INDIA Phone: 123456 Sample of a Letterhead with a Business Address Left Side Bar. You may have to adjust your margins to accommodate the side bar. Therefore, instead of a left margin of 1” or 1.25”, you may have a left margin of 1.8”.

Formatting a . . . : 

Formatting a . . . Business Report ?

What is a “Business Report”? : 

What is a “Business Report”? A business report is a technical report designed to persuade readers. A written business report communicates research findings, progress evaluations, proposals plans, or other information regarding a business practice, situation, or project.

Why create Business Reports? : 

Why create Business Reports? In a global society, the ability to report findings and develop expansion plans and propose solutions to business-related problems gives company’s a strategic advantage in world markets. Business reports, formal or informal, are technical communications that support business by persuading business leaders, employees, clients and other business stakeholders.

Regardless of what you write, Consider the Rhetorical Triangle . . . : 

Regardless of what you write, Consider the Rhetorical Triangle . . . Subject (the logic you will present -- your topic or message) Writer (your ethics, morals, skill set and Plans to use Your characteristics to meet your purpose) Audience (the passions, interests, or characteristics of the ones you’re trying to persuade and their characteristics)

Know your reading audience . . . Two Main Types of Business Report Readers : 

Know your reading audience . . . Two Main Types of Business Report Readers Skimmers – read quickly and look for key words in reports – look for bulleted information. Skeptics – read every word and are looking for logic flaws or reasons to disbelieve or say “No” – Provide them with plenty of examples, details, support statements What type are you?

Know Your Purpose and Outline First. : 

Know Your Purpose and Outline First. Outlining: create a hierarchy of your ideas. Outlining helps you to identify (1) what your main points are, (2) what supporting material is available, and (3) what other information you need to include. SAMPLE Progress Report for January 2002 I. Background A. Detailed plan regarding staff hired in Dec. 2007 B. Objectives set for the first month 1. Training/Orientation 2. End-of-Month testing II. Work completed to date A. Developed a training plan and presented it to the necessary committee B. Plan approved Jan. 2008 III. Work to be completed A. Plan to be initiated by March 2008 B. Contact new staff C. Train new staff

Formal Business Report Format : 

Formal Business Report Format General Sections of a long Business Formal Report: Title Page (Header may start on this page, depending on the style you use.) Letter of Transmittal (a general letter identifying routing information) Table of Contents (listing of subject content and page) List of Tables and Illustrations (name of graphics and page) Synopsis / Executive Summary / Abstract (may be required) Introduction (required) (Header may start on this page) Methods of Research (How did you find your data? Did you review literature, conduct a field experiment or survey?) Findings / Analysis (Discussion) Conclusions Recommendations Appendix (Graphs and Tables)

Sample: Letter of Transmittal : 

Sample: Letter of Transmittal A Letter of Transmittal accompanies a business report and may take the form of a simple memo with the following parts: TO:               Dr. Sharad Laal FROM:         M.G.Road DATE: June 24, 2010 SUBJECT:    EH 501 Final Report: An Analysis of Training Manuals for Peer Tutors in              Post-secondary Writing Centers [Open with an overview.]Enclosed you will find my final report for EH 501 entitled "An Analysis of Training Manuals for Peer Tutors in Post-Secondary Writing Centers" due December 7, 1999. [Then state your main finding] From interviews with five writing center directors and four consultants, I found that each writing center has its own unique circumstances for training. The manuals from these same writing centers do contain some consistent areas of attention. The manual produced for the University of Alabama in Huntsville Writing Center should reflect these findings. [Then comes the descriptive abstract.]The purpose of this report is to develop recommendations for a new training manual for peer tutors in a post-secondary writing center. Initially the report gives a brief description of the writing center environment, pedagogy, and theory. For the specific application of peer tutor training, the findings from interviews with Dr. Diana Calhoun Bell—director of the UAH Writing Center, directors of other writing centers, and consultants are presented. The report compares information from these practitioner inquiries with the content and form of the sample manuals obtained from three other university writing centers and with the existing UAH manual. The report concludes with recommendations for the UAH Writing Center’s Training Manual. [Then add whatever else you need to say.]After an initial email request to twenty-five writing centers, I was able to collect three peer tutor training manuals and receive answers to interview questions from two other directors. I interviewed four consultants in the UAH Writing Center using an abbreviated form of the questions. Dr. Bell has continued to express interest in this study and its continuation into an actual product. I hope to undertake the writing of the UAH Writing Center Consultant Training Manual as an independent study in the next semester.   Enclosure: Final Report (2 Copies)

The Body of the Formal Report : 

The Body of the Formal Report Introduction (should reveal a topic sentence and clarify the purpose of the report and organization strategy you will use). The introduction may include some important background information and definitions of particular terms (as needed). The Discussion part of the report should clearly present researched information or data, as well as internal references to sources, just as you would with any report. The company may adapt or modify a particular format (i.e., APA, MLA, Chicago) that all employee writers must follow. Learn the required format. Type Business Reports and when possible, include only well-planned and documented graphic illustrations that help clarify or add to the persuasiveness of your message.

Practice Exercise -- Simplified Language : 

Practice Exercise -- Simplified Language One of the most challenging business or technical writing task is to construct understandable, direct statements. The practice exercise is to determine if you have that skill or if you need to develop the skill of direct writing or Standard Writing English (SWE). Complete the sample practice exercise handout and then compare your answers with those provided on the next slide.

Possible Practice Exercise Answers : 

Possible Practice Exercise Answers All previously sent memos relating to this subject with earlier dates may be disregarded.1. Disregard previous memos on this subject. 2. The consensus of opinion is that the end result will be favorable in a positive manner.2. Opinion is that the result will be positive/favorable). 3. I would like to extend my thanks to you for your aid and assistance on the redhunt operation.3. Thank you for your help on the redhunt operation.

Possible Practice Exercise Answers (cont) : 

Possible Practice Exercise Answers (cont) 4. There is an almost certain possibility that the entire complete order will not arrive by the assigned due date.4. The complete order will not arrive on time. 5. The end result of our in-house, on-site production activities is various different products and output.5. Our production results in a variety of products. 6. For all intents and purposes, payroll will basically be appending your comp time towards your designated vacation allowance.6. Your comp time will be applied toward your vacation time. 7. Let me know if for some reason you don’t get this e-mail. Otherwise, please respond to it as soon as possible.7. Please respond to this e-mail by (specific time).

Possible Practice Exercise Answers (cont) : 

Possible Practice Exercise Answers (cont) 8. A proportion of people who work here feel that it may well be that they should be able to respond to the survey sometime in the future, at a later date.8. Some employees feel that they should be allowed to respond to the survey later. 9. It proved to be the case that, as a result of the on-going weekly updates, a significant percentage of the staff not infrequently has the ability to, in all cases, complete their assigned, work-related activities in a shorter time period. 9. Due to the weekly updates, (specific figure) percent of the staff can complete their work in less time. 10. Due to the fact that the next Wednesday following Tuesday is the day before Christmas, the normal work day will be truncated for the purpose of allowing employees to join their respective families in celebration of the holiday.10. Because Wednesday is Christmas Eve, the office will close early so employees can be with their families.

Thanks : 

Thanks Any Questions ???

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