GATT

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PowerPoint Presentation:

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

PowerPoint Presentation:

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was first signed in 1947. Was designed To provide an international forum That encouraged free trade between member states By regulating and reducing tariffs on traded goods Providing a common mechanism for resolving trade disputes.

GATT ???:

GATT ??? Was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the ITO The Bretton Woods Conference introduced the idea for an organization to regulate trade as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II As governments negotiated the ITO, 15 negotiating states began parallel negotiations for the GATT as a way to attain early tariff reductions Once the ITO failed in 1950, only the GATT agreement was left. A Treaty, not an Organization

Objective:

Objective The GATT's main objective was the “ Reduction of Barriers to International Trade ” This was achieved through the Reduction of Tariff barriers Quantitative Restrictions Subsidies on trade through a series of agreements

History:

History 3 Phases First Phase , from 1947 until the Torquay Round A second phase , encompassing three rounds, from 1959 to 1979 The Third phase , consisting only of the Uruguay Round from 1986 to 1994

First Phase:

First Phase Commodities which would be covered by the agreement and freezing existing tariff levels Year Place/name Subjects covered 1947 Geneva Tariffs 1949 Annecy Tariffs 1951 Torquay Tariffs

Second Phase:

Focused on reducing tariffs Second Phase Year Place/name Subjects covered 1960-1961 Geneva Dillon Round Tariffs 1964-1967 Geneva Kennedy Round Tariffs and anti-dumping measures 1973-1979 Geneva Tokyo Round Tariffs, non-tariff measures, “framework” agreements

Third Phase:

Third Phase Year Place/name Subjects covered 1986-1994 Geneva Uruguay Round Tariffs, non-tariff measures, rules, services, intellectual property, dispute settlement, textiles, agriculture, creation of WTO, etc Extended the agreement fully to new areas such as intellectual property, services, capital, and agriculture. Out of this round the WTO was born.

ROUNDS:

ROUNDS NAME START DURATION COUNTRIES SUB. COVERED ACHIVEMENTS 1.GENEVA APRIL 1947 7 MONTHS 23 TARIFFS SIGNING OF GATT, 45,000 TARIFF CONCESSIONS AFFECTING $10 BILLION OF TRADE. 2. ANNECY APRIL 1949 5 MONTHS 13 TARIFFS COUNTRIES EXCHANGED SOME 5000 TARIFF CONCESSIONS.

ROUNDS CONT…:

ROUNDS CONT… NAME START DURATION COUNTRIES SUB. COVERED ACHEVEMENTS 3. TORQUAY SEPT. 1950 8 MONTHS 38 TARIFFS COUNTRIES EXCHANGED SOME 8700 TARIFF CONCESSIONS, CUTTING THE TARIFFS BY 25% 4. GENEVA II JAN. 1956 5 MONTHS 26 TARIFFS, ADMISSION OF JAPAN $2.5 BILLION IN TARIFF REDUCTION 5. DILLON SEPT. 1960 11 MONTHS 26 TARIFFS TARIFF CONCESSION WORTH $4.9 BILLION OF WORLD TRADE.

ROUNDS CONT…:

ROUNDS CONT… NAME START DURATION COUNTRIES SUB. COVERED ACHIVEMENTS 6. KENNEDY MAY 1964 37 MONTHS 62 TARIFFS & ANTIDUMPING TARIFF CONCESSION WORTH $40 BILLION OF WORLD TRADE 7. TOKYO SEPT. 1973 74 MONTHS 102 TARIFF, NON TARIFF MEASURES, “FRAMEWORK” AGREEMENTS TARIFF REDUCTION WORTH $190 BILLION ACHIEVED. 8. URUGUAY SEPT. 1986 87 MONTHS 123 TARIFFS,NON TARIFFS,RULES, SERVICES,IP,DISPUTE SETTLEMENT,TEXTILES,AGRI. CREATION OF WTO, & EXTENDED THE RANGE OF TRADE NEGOTIATION,LEADING TO THE REDUCTION IN TARIFFS(ABOUT 40%).

Did GATT succeed? :

Did GATT succeed?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Continual reductions in tariffs helped spur very high rates of world trade growth during the 1950s and 1960s — around 8% a year on average Trade growth consistently out-paced production growth The rush of new members during the Uruguay Round demonstrated recognition of multilateral trading system as the anchor for development and an instrument of economic and trade reform.

But…….:

But…….

PowerPoint Presentation:

GATT’s success in reducing tariffs to a low level, with a series of economic recessions 1970-80’s drove governments to devise other forms of protection for sectors facing increased foreign competition High rates of unemployment and constant factory closures led governments in Western Europe and North America to seek bilateral market-sharing arrangements with competitors and to embark on a subsidies race to maintain their holds on agricultural trade Both these changes undermined GATT’s credibility and effectiveness.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The problem was not just a deteriorating trade policy environment. By the early 1980s the General Agreement was clearly no longer as relevant to the realities of world trade as it had been in the 1940s World trade had become far more complex and important than 40 years before The globalization of the world economy was underway Trade in services — not covered by GATT rules Ever increasing international investments

PowerPoint Presentation:

Factors convinced GATT members that a new effort to reinforce and extend the multilateral system should be attempted. That effort resulted in the Uruguay Round, the Marrakesh Declaration, and the creation of the WTO.

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