Sweetened soft drinks and your health BY: NKUKURAH, D.K

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HOW SWEET FOODS KILL YOU?

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Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 10/29/2013 1 NKUKURAH, D.K [email protected]

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 40% of Tanzanians have two meals per day Nutrition status: 42% of children are stunted; 5% are wasted and 16% have chronic and acute nutrition. Nutrition status is getting worse compared to 2004/05 In women 11% are undernourished; 21% are overweight. 58% of children aged between 6-59 months have anaemia and 40% of women aged between 15-49 years are anaemic 10/29/2013 2

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey Fertility is declining 5.4 births/woman in 2010 compared to 5.7 births/woman in 2004 Sperm count in male (30) is below standard Under fives mortality rate is 112 per 100,000 live births Maternal mortality rate; 454 women die in every 100,000 births 10/29/2013 3

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 27% of females never attended school, compared to 18% of males 24% of people smoke cigarette 54% of women agree that wife beating by a husband is justified for at least one of the specified situations; in 2004/05 it was 60% 10/29/2013 4

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 40% of men have never married By the age of 18 years 60% of women had sexual intercourse; mean age for men is 18.5% 27% of women and 24% of men reported to have unlawful sexual relations 8% of women and 6% of men reported having sexually transmitted infections 10/29/2013 5

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Asante kwa Kula bila kukoboa 10/29/2013 6

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health You can go swimming in food varieties, but go for right choice 10/29/2013 7

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Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Introduction The soft drink usually contains the following components: Phosphoric acid, Caffeine, Sugar or Aspartame or Saccharin, Caramel coloring, Carbon dioxide, and Aluminum. 10/29/2013 9

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Ingesting a soft drink does not cause any immediate warning such as stomach cramps, vomiting, or diarrhea that would normally occur when a poison enters the body. Instead, there is the energizing feeling of caffeine, the sweet taste of sugar combined with the sour taste of phosphoric acid, and the playful feeling of the carbon dioxide bubbles. Those ingredients cause imbalances in the body systems that result in debilitating diseases that show up after many, many years of abuse. Those diseases have now become commonly thought of as normal aging with no directly attributable causes. 10/29/2013 10

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 1. Phosphoric Acid This is used because phosphoric acid creates an acid medium that enhances the absorption of carbon dioxide (which is also forms carbonic acid in water), thus reducing the pressure required and allowing the mixture to be bottled with a metal cap. The sour taste of the phosphoric acid is complemented by adding lots of sugar. 10/29/2013 11

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health The body maintains a concentration of phosphorus (P) times calcium (Ca) to equal potassium (P x Ca = K) in the bloodstream to provide the right combination for building new bones and remodeling old ones. The shock of incoming phosphorus with zero calcium in a soft drink causes ionized Ca in the blood to decline, along with an excretion of Ca in the urine. The drop in blood Ca causes the body system to dissolve Ca from the bones to make up the imbalance caused by the Ca lost in the blood. 10/29/2013 12

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Prolonged intake soft drinks results in the weakened bone structure (osteoporosis) associated with old people. The excess of Ca is eliminated in life-sustaining order by: Excretion in the urine, Deposition in joints (oteoarthritis, bursitis, gout, bone spurs, and bunions), Accretion into stones (kidney stones, etc.), and Deposition in arteries (calcified plaque). 10/29/2013 13

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Phosphoric acid, like coffee, causes the body to use its alkaline minerals (sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) to neutralize the acid. The body loses valuable minerals because the neutral compounds (salts) are excreted in the urine. 10/29/2013 14

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Sodium depletion causes bile to become acidic and form mucoid plaque on the intestines, which causes colitis and other serious bowel diseases. Potassium and magnesium depletion can contribute to the development of heart disease. 10/29/2013 15

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 2. Caffeine An addictive drug that has the ability to stimulate mental alertness, overcome fatigue, and enhance endurance. Caffeine acts by blocking adenosine (neurotransmitter) receptor sites in the central nervous system. 10/29/2013 16

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Adenosine has a generally depressant action in the brain, heart, and kidneys. The resultant stimulation is a accompanied by constriction of the cerebral arteries, rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and excessive excretion of urine. Caffeine causes the release of adrenaline and an accompanying upshot in blood sugar to meet the need for emergency energy. 10/29/2013 17

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health The pancreas also reacts by secreting insulin to keep the blood sugar level stable. Insulin drives blood sugar levels down by forcing it into cells for oxidation and energy production. Excess sugar is stored as fat. This unbalanced cycling process puts undue stress on the adrenal glands and the pancreas, which are weakened after so much use. 10/29/2013 18

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Adrenal exhaustion and the accompanying deficiency of cortisol allow arachidonic acid to be released to form prostaglandin-2 and leukotrienes which mediate arthritis. Regular users who are deprived of daily caffeine are subject to mental sluggishness, inability to think clearly, depression, and a dull, generalized headache. All these symptoms are promptly eliminated by caffeine. Even moderate users must have their daily fix and cannot give up their harmful habit. 10/29/2013 19

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health At excessive doses, caffeine will cause aggression, recklessness, shouting, and swearing (road rage). Caffeine given to rats in large dosages will cause them to physically attack one another and fight until death. If given to a lone rat, it will die of frenetic self-mutilation. 10/29/2013 20

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 3 . Sugar A 12-ounce can of soda contains about 33 grams (11 teaspoons) of sugar. An 8-ounce can of Pepsi has over 10 teaspoons of sugar. 10/29/2013 21

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health It is difficult to think that something so common, and that tastes so good, can be so harmful to health. The ingestion of sugar (or a high simple carbohydrate diet) actually increases urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, chromium, copper, zinc, and sodium by impairing re-absorption in the kidneys. 10/29/2013 22

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Fructose is not glucose • Fructose is 7 times more likely than glucose to form Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE’s) • Fructose does not suppress ghrelin • Acute fructose does not stimulate insulin (or leptin ) • Hepatic fructose metabolism is different • Chronic fructose exposure promotes the Metabolic Syndrome 10/29/2013 23

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1 servings a day increased risk by 45% BUT 2 or more servings a day increaBUT 2 or more servings a day increased risk of gout by 85% risk of gout by 85% Suggests that the risk posed by free fructose intake , is as great as that of the intake of purine rich food 1 servings a day increased gout risk by 45%

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health The loss of calcium in the blood activates the parathyroid hormone (PTH), which causes the release of calcium from the bones which is at the root of osteoporosis, arthritis, bursitis, and gout. Sugar causes blood sugar levels to soar/rise—insulin, secreted from the pancreas, shoots up to drive the sugar down—and rapid, unbalanced cycling ensues that eventually wears out the pancreas and makes the cells resistant to insulin—resulting in a disease called diabetes. 10/29/2013 25

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Sugar causes the clumping of red blood cells. This impedes the flow and effectiveness of delivering oxygen to the cells and removing carbon dioxide from the cells. The result is a detrimental buildup of wastes in the body that accelerates aging. Sugar impairs immune function by competing with Vitamin C for transport into white blood cells. 10/29/2013 26

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Reduces the ability of white blood cells to engulf and destroy invading bacteria, which leads to chronic infections. Sugar supports the growth of harmful bacteria and yeast in the GI tract which lead to infections. 10/29/2013 27

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Food manufacturers are currently deceiving the public by taking fat out of foods and adding sugar to enhance taste. It is then deceptively advertised as “fat free” to attract people who want to lose weight, but do not know that the body will convert excess sugar to fat anyway. 10/29/2013 28

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Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 4. Aspartame, Saccharin, and Caramel Coloring Aspartame is a sweetener that has found its way into almost everything to replace sugar. When aspartame is digested it breaks down into three chemicals: aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol. Aspartic acid is an excitotoxin that causes serious chronic neurological disorders—it can overstimulate neurons to such an extent that sensitive neurons are slowly destroyed before any obvious behavior symptoms are noticed. 10/29/2013 34

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Phenylalanine can decrease serotonin (a brain neurotransmitter related to emotion and sleep). Low serotonin can lead to emotional disorders, depression, and poor quality sleep . 10/29/2013 35

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Methanol is a poison that is metabolized by the liver into formaldehyde (a deadly neurotoxin, carcinogen, mutagen, and teratogen and formic acid (the active chemical in bee and ant stings). Methanol is a cumulative poison whose symptoms include headaches, tinnitus, shooting pains, memory lapses, numbness, and nerve inflammation. The most prominent symptoms are blurred vision, retinal damage, and blindness . 10/29/2013 36

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Saccharin: A crystalline substance 500 times sweeter than sugar; used as a calorie-free sweetener. Is a carcinogen in animals. In 1978, the National Academy of Sciences concluded that saccharin is a potential cancer-causing agent in humans, and that it promotes the carcinogenic effects of other agents. The Food and Drug Administration’s position is that saccharin should not be used in food, but it is used as a table sweetener! 10/29/2013 37

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Caramel: Burnt sugar; used to color and flavor food, coloring is obtained by heating sugar until a brown color and characteristic flavor develops. Caramel coloring has negative genetic effects and is a cancer-causing agent. 10/29/2013 38

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 5. Carbon dioxide and Aluminum Carbon dioxide is probably the least obnoxious thing in a soft drink. It is a waste product of metabolism that is exhaled. why should we ingest something that the body is trying to eliminate? 10/29/2013 39

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health phosphoric acid leaches toxic amounts of aluminum into the soft drink despite the plastic coating. Aluminum is deposited in the brain and bone tissue resulting in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles in brain tissue causes alzheimer’s disease. Aluminum exposure increases bone break-down, reduces new bone formation. Aluminum causes excessive loss of calcium in the urine resulting in osteoporosis and severe bone pain. 10/29/2013 40

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Other effects include: 1. Tooth Decay All soft drinks are acidic which corrodes the teeth by eroding its enamel. The high amount of sugar consumed through soft drinks lead to the development of bacteria that attack the teeth. 10/29/2013 41

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 2. Obesity: Soft drinks are mainly composed of filtered H2O, artificial additives and refined sugar; they make you gain weight. 10/29/2013 42

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 10/29/2013 43

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 10/29/2013 44 Lakini siyo mimi nikupae nguvu ? Wewe sukari ukizidi mwilini , duhu !

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health But is shifting to 'Diet Soft Drink' the solution? The fact is that diet soft drinks contain aspartame (an artificial low-calorie sweetener). Although aspartame does not add up the calories it makes you feel hungrier and crave for food . 10/29/2013 45

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) no longer allows foods containing aspartame to be labeled as 'weight reduction product '. Now it insists to label these products simply as 'Diet Drink' or 'Diet Food '. Research also shows that aspartame causes migraines, dizziness and more over it reduces your memory. 10/29/2013 46

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 3. Malnutrition: Some people who are addicted to soft drinks deprive themselves from food until they become victims of malnutrition. Since gastrointestinal disturbance of these drinks lead to poor appetite thus surviving on soft drinks and little amount of food will cause malnutrition, retarded growth and other physiological problems. 10/29/2013 47

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Effect on Gastro-Intestinal System: When you open the bottle of a soft drink, bubbles and fizz are immediately emitted out. This is due to phosphoric acid and carbon dioxide (CO2) content, which make these drinks highly acidic. The pH of soft drink ranges from 2.5-3.4 which generates a highly acidic environment in the stomach. 10/29/2013 48

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Throughout the digestive system, that starts from the mouth and ends up at the anus (liver, gallbladder and pancreas play the role of accessory organs) only the stomach can resist an acidic environment up to pH 2.0. But before the acidity of soft drink reaches the stomach it passes through all the other organs involved in the digestive system thus causing an abnormal acidic environment. 10/29/2013 49

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Hence the linings of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus are highly sensitive to acids. Also there is a very common practice of taking soft drinks when a person suffers from acidity or after having a heavy meal. However, this is wrong. 10/29/2013 50

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health The phosphoric acid present in soft drink competes with the hydrochloric acid of the stomach and affects its functions. When the stomach becomes ineffective, food remains undigested causing indigestion, gassiness or bloating. Thus people who are suffering from acidity should not be drinking soft drinks because actually it increases acidity further. 10/29/2013 51

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 4. Effect on Kidneys: Kidneys are less able to excrete phosphoric acid when it is in excess. Thus, there is extra work for kidney. Soft drinks remove Calcium from the body, causing an excess amount of Calcium that tend to be deposited in kidney, resulting in nephrolithiasis (kidney stones). 10/29/2013 52

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 5. Effect on Skin: Acidic blood affects the action of glutathione , which is an antioxidant enzyme. By taking these drinks, people cut their intake of fresh juices, milk and even water and deprive themselves from essential vitamins and minerals that are mandatory for skin. Thus, the skin becomes more prone to wrinkles and aging. 10/29/2013 53

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 6. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) The rise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease parallels the increase in obesity and diabetes, a significant increase in dietary fructose consumption. The increased consumption of high fructose corn syrup, primarily in the form of soft-drinks, is linked with complications of the insulin resistance syndrome. Furthermore, the hepatic metabolism of fructose favors de novo lipogenesis and ATP depletion. We hypothesize that increased fructose consumption contributes to the development of NAFLD. 10/29/2013 54

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 7. Effect on Bones: Phosphoric acid, present in carbonated drinks is violently poisonous, it de-oxidizes blood. In detergent manufacturing industries, phosphoric acid is used to produce water softener. Water softener removes Ca²+ and Mg²+ ion from hard water. In human body, the function remains the same by removing Ca²+ from bones causing osteoporosis (porous bones). 10/29/2013 55

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 8. Effect of Caffeine: In most of carbonated beverages, caffeine is deliberately added to make it addictive. Caffeine in carbonated drink is more readily absorbed than any other drink (like coffee, chocolate etc.). Caffeine disturbs sleep by stimulating nervous system. It also makes premenstrual syndrome worse, causes dehydration and induces stomach to produce acids, aggravating hyperacidity. Since caffeine disturbs sleep, the body is more likely to produce C - reactive protein, which plays an important role in heart disease. 10/29/2013 56

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Like a filter, Keep bad things out Food 10/29/2013 57

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health The power action of Coca cola 1. In many states the highway patrol carries gallons of Coke in the truck to remove blood from the highway after a car accident. 2. You can put a T-bone steak in a bowl of coke and it will be gone in two days. 3. To clean a toilet: Pour a can of Coca-Cola into the toilet bowl and .......Let the "real thing" sit for one hour, then flush clean. The citric acid in Coke removes stains. 10/29/2013 58

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 4. To remove rust spots from chrome car bumpers: Rub the bumper with a crumpled-up piece of Reynolds Wrap aluminum foil dipped in Coca-Cola. 5. To clean corrosion from car battery terminals: Pour a can of Coca-Cola over the terminals to bubble away the corrosion. 6. To loosen a rusted bolt: Applying a cloth soaked in Coca-Cola to the rusted bolt for several minutes. 10/29/2013 59

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 7. To bake a moist ham: Empty a can of Coca-Cola into the baking pan, wrap the ham in aluminum foil, and bake. 30 minutes before the ham is finished, remove the foil, allowing the drippings to mix with the Coke for a sumptuous brown gravy. 8. To remove grease from clothes: Empty a can of coke into a load of greasy clothes, add detergent, And run through a regular cycle. The Coca-Cola will help loosen grease stains. It will also clean road haze from your windshield. 10/29/2013 60

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 9. The active ingredient in Coke is phosphoric acid. Its pH is 2.8. It will dissolve a nail in about 4 days. 10. To carry Coca-Cola syrup (the concentrate) the commercial truck must use the Hazardous material place cards reserved for Highly corrosive materials. 11. The distributors of coke have been using it to clean the engines of their trucks for about 20 years! 10/29/2013 61

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Drinking water is better than sweetened drinks 10/29/2013 62

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Unity is power: “mwakondya/ Asanteni/Thanks” au revoir 10/29/2013 63

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health 10/29/2013 64

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10/29/2013 65 Chagua

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Reference: Allison S., Kristina I., Rother, MD, MHSc, and Rebecca B., MD, MHSc (2011) Artificial sweetener use among children: epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions: National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Emory University 10/29/2013 66

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Jennifer L. Temple (2009) Caffeine Use in Children : What we know, what we have left to learn, and why we should worry; University at Buffalo, Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Buffalo, NY 14214 Young Hee Rho, MD, PhD, MPH, Yanyan Zhu, PhD, and Hyon K. Choi , MD, DrPH (2011) The Epidemiology of Uric Acid and Fructose: Section of Rheumatology and the Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Boston University School of Medicine. 10/29/2013 67

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Elizabeth A. Dennis, Kyle D. F., and Brenda M. Davy(2009) Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management : Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise 221 Wallace Hall (0430), Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061 Ph. 540.231.6784 fax 540.231.3916 10/29/2013 68

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Elizabeth E. H., Lauren A. W., Ellen M. M., Tina C., Anders H.R., Henrik T. S., and Kenneth J. R., (2012) Caffeinated Beverage and Soda Consumption and Time to pregnancy: 1) Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, 2) Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University. 3) Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital 10/29/2013 69

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Vasanti S. Malik , MSc , Barry M. Popkin , PhD, George A. Bray, MD, Jean-Pierre Després , PhD, and Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD(2010) Sugar Sweetened Beverages, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease risk: 1)Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. 2) Dietary Obesity Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. 3) Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Québec City, QC, Canada 10/29/2013 70

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Lawrence de K., PhD, Vasanti S. M., ScD, Mark D. K., PhD, Eric B. R.,ScD, Walter C. W., MD, DrPH, and Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD(2012) Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men: 1)Dept of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health. 2)Dept of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health. 3)Dept of Laboratory Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston MA. 10/29/2013 71

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Leslie A. E., Teresa A. M., Fang Q., James S. W., and John J. W.(2008) Acidic beverages increase the risk of in vitro tooth erosion: College of Dentistry, University of Iowa. 10/29/2013 72

Sweetened soft drinks and your health:

Sweetened soft drinks and your health Xiaosen O., MD, Pietro C., MD, Yuri S., PhD, Shannon McCall, MD,James L. B., Anna Mae D., MD, Richard J. J., MD, and Manal F. Abdelmalek, MD(2008) Fructose Consumption as a Risk Factor for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: 1) Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 2) Division Gastroenterology & Hepatology.3) University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 10/29/2013 73

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