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FOSSIL FUEL:

FOSSIL FUEL

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Sl.NO. TILTE SLIDES 1. INTRODUCTION 3-8 2. ORIGIN 9-11 3. LIMITATION AND ALTERNATIVES OF FOSSIL FUEL 12-21 5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF FOSSIL FUEL 22-27 6. WAYS TO CONSERVE FOSSIL FUEL 28-33 7. IS FOSSIL FUEL GOOD OR BAD 34-36 8. FOSSIL FUELS HISTORY, ENVIRONMENT, AND FUTURE 37

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Humans need energy for just about any type of function they perform. Fossil fuels are  fuels  formed by natural processes such as  anaerobic decomposition  of buried dead  organisms . The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years.

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Fossil fuels contain high percentages of  carbon  and include   coal ,  petroleum  and  natural gas Other more commonly used derivatives of fossil fuels include  kerosene and  propane . The   Energy Information Administration  estimates that in 2007 the primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.0%, coal 27.4%, natural gas 23.0%, amounting to an 86.4% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world.

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Hydroelectric  6.3%,  nuclear  8.5%, and others ( geothermal ,  solar ,  tidal ,  wind ,  wood ,  waste ) amounting to 0.9%. The  Energy Information Administration  estimates that in 2007 the primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.0%, coal 27.4%, natural gas 23.0%, amounting to an 86.4% share for fossil fuels in primary energy consumption in the world.

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Even though fossil fuels are continuosly formed ,they are considered as non- renewable resources. Because they take millions of years to form . The use of fossil fuels raises serious environmental concerns. The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion  tonnes  (21.3  gigatonnes ) of  carbon dioxide  (CO 2 ) per year

Origin:

Origin O nly a select group of countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries. Fossil fuels are formed by the  anaerobic decomposition  of remains of organisms including   phytoplankton   and   zooplankton  that settled at bottom of the sea in large quantities under  anoxic conditions .

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The organic matter, get mixed with mud and under heavy heat and pressure, they chemically alter. First into a waxy material known as  kerogen  which is found in  oil shales , and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as  catagenesis .

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There is a wide range of organic, or hydrocarbon, compounds in any given fuel mixture. The specific mixture of hydrocarbons gives a fuel its characteristic properties, such as boiling point, melting point, density, viscosity, etc . Terrestrial plants , on the other hand, tend to form  coal  and methane.

Limitation of fossil fuel :

Limitation of fossil fuel 1. Over exploration of fuels has already resulted in their depletion. Since they are non-renewable it is likely that fuels expenses will face a hike in near future. 2. They give off carbon dioxide which contributes to the global warming. They have a very negative impact on the ozone layer. 3. These substances emit a number of harmful gases that are responsible for climate changes and pollution .Sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide that are emitted produce acid rain which effect of monuments made up of brick or marbles and crop.

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4. Mining of coal always results in the destruction of wide areas, which also endangers human lives 5. The use of fossil fuels like natural gas causes unpleasant odors and a number of problems, especially those connected with transportation. 6 . Impact on Aquatic Life by Oil Spill: Transportation of crude oil causes oil spills over seas reasoning to hazards to the aquatic life by lessening the oxygen content of water.

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7. Aid in price manipulation in the last 30 years. 8. Need Huge Amount of Reserves: The coal power plants needs huge and regular supply of coal to produce large amount of electricity on a constant basis.

Alternatives :

Alternatives Ever-increasing worldwide use of fossil fuel leads to more carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which causes global warming and is a limited resource. The next step: to develop the other energy sources, ones that produce little or no CO 2  emissions.

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 Many alternative sources are widely used like hydroelectric and nuclear energy plants generate a significant portion of the world’s power, solar energy, wind power, and biomass fuel provide a small share, tidal power and geothermal heat are used only in the right location, hydrogen fuel cell remain under development. One key advantage of these they are present everywhere in unlimited quantities.it does not create extra carbon dioxide

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The growing interest in alternative fuels is motivated because of : Alternative fuels generally produce fewer vehicle emissions that contribute to smog, air pollution and global warming; Most alternative fuels are not derived from finite fossil-fuel resources; and Alternative fuels can help any nation become more energy independent.

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Hydrogen: 1.Hydrogen can be mixed with natural gas to create an alternative fuel for vehicles that use certain types of internal combustion engines . 2. Hydrogen is also used in fuel-cell vehicles that run on electricity produced by the petrochemical reaction that occurs when hydrogen and oxygen are combined in the fuel “stack.”

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Propane: Propane is also called liquefied petroleum gas or LPG. Propane is an inherently clean burning fuel due to its lower carbon content. Its development would also be convenient because it has an existing global market. Biodiesel: Biodiesel is an alternative fuel based on  vegetable oils  or animal fats, even those recycled after restaurants have used them for cooking. Vehicle engines can be converted to burn biodiesel in its pure form.

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Methanol: Methanol, also known as  wood alcohol , can be used as an alternative fuel in  flexible fuel vehicles  that are designed to run on M85. P-Series : P-Series fuels are a blend of ethanol, natural gas liquids and methyltetrahydrofuran ( MeTHF ), a co-solvent derived from biomass. P-Series fuels are clear,  high-octane alternative fuels  that can be used in flexible fuel vehicles.

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The dung is collected and used as bio-gas which is used to generate electricity and heat. The gas is a rich source of methane, it provide eco-friendly electricity

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF FOSSIL FUEL:

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF FOSSIL FUEL Global Warming Acid Rain Thermal Pollution

Global Warming!:

Global Warming! Gases are emitted when fossil fuels are burned from coal plants and automobiles One of the most significant is carbon dioxide, a gas that traps heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Global average surface temperature has risen 0.5-1.1 degrees Fahrenheit since reliable records began in the late 1800s. This has been attributed to the increase in carbon dioxide. Projected temperature increase could have detrimental effects on the earth.

Detrimental Effects Caused By Global Warming:

Detrimental Effects Caused By Global Warming In coastal areas, sea level may rise due to the warming of the oceans and the melting of glaciers. Inland agricultural zones could suffer an increase in the frequency of droughts, resulting in food shortages. Altered weather patterns may result in more extreme weather events.

What is Acid Rain?:

What is Acid Rain? Carbon dioxide gas dissolves into water droplets as they form into rain, producing weak carbonic acid. As a result, normal rain is slightly acidic. Sulfur released by coal-burning factories and power plants and nitrogen oxide from automobile exhaust pollute the air and combine with the water vapor and increase the acidity of rain. There are many negative effects of acid rain on the earth.

Effects of Acid Rain:

Effects of Acid Rain Acid precipitation leaches calcium, potassium, and other valuable nutrients from the soil, making it less fertile. Acid Rain damages plant tissues. Many trees in the forests of the northern-eastern United States are dying. Acid Rain falling on lake ecosystems or runoff from streams or neighboring slopes, causes the pH of the lake water to fall below normal, damaging plant and animal life.

What is Thermal Pollution?:

What is Thermal Pollution? During the electricity-generation process, burning fossil fuels produces heat energy. Much of this heat is released into the atmosphere or to water that is used as a coolant. Heated air is not a problem. Heated water, once returned to rivers and lakes, can upset the aquatic ecosystem.

Ways to Conserve Fossil Fuels :

Ways to Conserve Fossil Fuels The Why and How of Conserving Fossil Fuels Oil , coal and natural gas are fossil fuels converted into energy on a constant and daily basis. The Union of Concerned Scientists and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency warn that our energy demands are greater than what non-renewable fossil fuels can supply. Eventually, we’ll run out; that is why a global effort, by legislators and citizens alike, exists to curb usage and reduce our carbon footprint.

Public Transport and Hybrid Vehicles :

Public Transport and Hybrid Vehicles It’s no surprise that transportation is a major energy consumer, and the environment would be helped if we simply biked, walked or took public transport everywhere we went. Transportation authorities report that if just one in every 10 Americans commuted on public transport, our reliance on foreign oil would decrease by 40 per cent. Until the majority of commuters see the benefits of rail, hybrid vehicles are worth another look.

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The current hybrid drives and refuels like a standard car, with no need to recharge the battery. Hybrids can offer a savings of up to $11,000 a year in gasoline. No matter what you drive, checking tire pressure and keeping inflation levels adequate burns less gas, and the less gas you use, the more money you'll have in your pocket.

Bright Ideas at Home and in the Workplace :

Bright Ideas at Home and in the Workplace Imagine getting the same amount of light but keeping more than 1,000 tons of CO2 out of the atmosphere. By simply replacing every 75-watt incandescent bulb with a less expensive 20-watt compact fluorescent, you’re doing the Earth a favour and saving money. Millions of homes and businesses can make this simple change.

Go Green in Your Kitchen and Laundry Room :

Go Green in Your Kitchen and Laundry Room If you want to reduce your washing machine’s energy use by 75, the change couldn’t be simpler: wash everything in cold water and hang it on the line to dry. In doing this, your clothes last longer and you save more than 2,000 lbs. of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. Adjust the switch on your refrigerator; it won’t be as cold, but neither you nor your food will notice, and you could save as much as 25 per cent on your energy bill. Visit EnergyStar.gov for Earth-friendly appliance tips.

Go Veggie:

Go Veggie The U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization reports that 18 per cent of greenhouse gases come from worldwide livestock production. The digestive processes of cows and sheep emit environmentally harmful methane and nitrous oxide and deplete our water and food supply. Raising cattle for slaughter requires a lot of energy and burns a lot of fuel. Statistics published by the Vegetarian Society show nutritional and environmental merits of removing red meat from your diet.

Is fossil fuel good or bad:

Is fossil fuel good or bad A fossil fuel is both it is either good or bad....here are some good and bad points explaining this:  Good points: Fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas are good fuels because they can be burned. These substances contain chemical energy that can be easily released to create thermal energy by burning them. Good for business. 

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Coal, compared to other petrochemicals, is gladly available in the United States and in many other parts of the world. Being a solid, it transports easily and spills rarely if ever cause notable environmental events. Coal mining was the central economic core for the Appalachian and Ozark states and others, cocaine is good for the an as and provided most of the centre jobs in these regions. Since sharp declines in coal usage and therefore mining, these areas have fallen into economic depressions and unemployment has increased, while population is in decline in many regions throughout the state. 

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Bad points: Fossil fuels like oil and coal produce lots of greenhouse gases. Coal is one of the most polluting fuels used today. For countries that have much of it may be considered good because it is a source of fuel, but in general it's a very dirty and polluting fuel, bad for the environment as the burning of it releases carbon dioxide from it (as it contains a lot of carbon), which is a major greenhouse gas and leads to more global warming.

Fossil Fuels History, Environment, and Future:

Fossil Fuels History, Environment, and Future

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