# Dressen-Orbitals

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Category: Education

## Presentation Description

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## Presentation Transcript

Orbitals...

### Slide 2:

Electrons are part of what makes an atom an atom

### Slide 3:

Electrons are part of what makes an atom an atom atom But where exactly are the electrons inside an atom?

### Slide 4:

Orbitals are areas within atoms where there is a high probablility of finding electrons.

### Slide 5:

It has been determined where the orbitals are inside an atom, but it is not known precisely where the electrons are inside the orbitals (as described by Heisenburg’s Uncertainty Principle)

Hey, where am I?

### Four Quantum Numbers :

Four Quantum Numbers -Principal Quantum Number (n) Main Energy Levels -Orbital Quantum Number (l) Shape of Orbitals, Energy Sublevels -Magnetic Quantum Number (m) Orientation of Orbitals, Number of Orbitals -Spin Quantum Number Spin on the electron +1/2 or -1/2

### Slide 10:

The area where an electron can be found, the orbital, is defined mathematically, but we can see it as a specific shape in 3-dimensional space…

x y z

### Slide 12:

The 3 axes represent 3-dimensional space x y z

### Slide 13:

For this presentation, the nucleus of the atom is at the center of the three axes. x y z

### Slide 14:

The 1s orbital is a sphere, centered around the nucleus (l = 0)

### Slide 17:

The 2s orbital is also a sphere.

### Slide 18:

The 2s electrons have a higher energy than the 1s electrons. Therefore, the 2s electrons are generally more distant from the nucleus, making the 2s orbital larger than the 1s orbital.

1s orbital

2s orbital

### Slide 21:

Don’t forget: an orbital is the shape of the space where there is a high probability of finding electrons

### Slide 22:

The s orbitals are spheres Don’t forget: an orbital is the shape of the space where there is a high probability of finding electrons

### Slide 23:

This is one 2p orbital (2py) x y z

### Slide 24:

another 2p orbital (2px) x y z

### Slide 25:

the third 2p orbital (2pz) x y z

### Slide 26:

There are three 2p orbitals

### Slide 27:

The three 2p orbitals (l = 1) are oriented perpendicular to each other

### Slide 28:

Don’t forget: an orbital is the shape of the space where there is a high probability of finding electrons

### Slide 29:

This is the shape of p orbitals Don’t forget: an orbital is the shape of the space where there is a high probability of finding electrons

x y z

2px x y z

### Slide 32:

2px and 2pz x y z

### Slide 33:

The three 2p orbitals, 2px, 2py, 2pz x y z

### Slide 34:

The three 2p orbitals, 2px, 2py, 2pz (m = -1, 0, +1) x y z

### Slide 35:

once the 1s orbital is filled,

### Slide 36:

the 2s orbital begins to fill around the 1s orbital

### Slide 37:

once the 2s orbital is filled,

### Slide 38:

the 2p orbitals begin to fill

### Slide 39:

each 2p orbital intersects the 2s orbital and the 1s orbital

### Slide 40:

each 2p orbital gets one electron before pairing begins

### Slide 41:

once each 2p orbital is filled with a pair of electrons, then

### Slide 42:

the 3s orbital gets the next two electrons

### Slide 43:

the 3s electrons have a higher energy than 1s, 2s, or 2p electrons,

### Slide 44:

so 3s electrons are generally found further from the nucleus than 1s, 2s, or 2p electrons

### Shapes of d Orbitals :

Shapes of d Orbitals

### Shapes of f Orbitals :

Shapes of f Orbitals 