Dressen-Orbitals

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Slide 1: 

Orbitals...

Slide 2: 

Electrons are part of what makes an atom an atom

Slide 3: 

Electrons are part of what makes an atom an atom atom But where exactly are the electrons inside an atom?

Slide 4: 

Orbitals are areas within atoms where there is a high probablility of finding electrons.

Slide 5: 

It has been determined where the orbitals are inside an atom, but it is not known precisely where the electrons are inside the orbitals (as described by Heisenburg’s Uncertainty Principle)

Slide 6: 

Hey, where am I?

Really Bad Chemistry Joke : 

Really Bad Chemistry Joke

Four Quantum Numbers : 

Four Quantum Numbers -Principal Quantum Number (n) Main Energy Levels -Orbital Quantum Number (l) Shape of Orbitals, Energy Sublevels -Magnetic Quantum Number (m) Orientation of Orbitals, Number of Orbitals -Spin Quantum Number Spin on the electron +1/2 or -1/2

Slide 10: 

The area where an electron can be found, the orbital, is defined mathematically, but we can see it as a specific shape in 3-dimensional space…

Slide 11: 

x y z

Slide 12: 

The 3 axes represent 3-dimensional space x y z

Slide 13: 

For this presentation, the nucleus of the atom is at the center of the three axes. x y z

Slide 14: 

The 1s orbital is a sphere, centered around the nucleus (l = 0)

Slide 17: 

The 2s orbital is also a sphere.

Slide 18: 

The 2s electrons have a higher energy than the 1s electrons. Therefore, the 2s electrons are generally more distant from the nucleus, making the 2s orbital larger than the 1s orbital.

Slide 19: 

1s orbital

Slide 20: 

2s orbital

Slide 21: 

Don’t forget: an orbital is the shape of the space where there is a high probability of finding electrons

Slide 22: 

The s orbitals are spheres Don’t forget: an orbital is the shape of the space where there is a high probability of finding electrons

Slide 23: 

This is one 2p orbital (2py) x y z

Slide 24: 

another 2p orbital (2px) x y z

Slide 25: 

the third 2p orbital (2pz) x y z

Slide 26: 

There are three 2p orbitals

Slide 27: 

The three 2p orbitals (l = 1) are oriented perpendicular to each other

Slide 28: 

Don’t forget: an orbital is the shape of the space where there is a high probability of finding electrons

Slide 29: 

This is the shape of p orbitals Don’t forget: an orbital is the shape of the space where there is a high probability of finding electrons

Slide 30: 

x y z

Slide 31: 

2px x y z

Slide 32: 

2px and 2pz x y z

Slide 33: 

The three 2p orbitals, 2px, 2py, 2pz x y z

Slide 34: 

The three 2p orbitals, 2px, 2py, 2pz (m = -1, 0, +1) x y z

Slide 35: 

once the 1s orbital is filled,

Slide 36: 

the 2s orbital begins to fill around the 1s orbital

Slide 37: 

once the 2s orbital is filled,

Slide 38: 

the 2p orbitals begin to fill

Slide 39: 

each 2p orbital intersects the 2s orbital and the 1s orbital

Slide 40: 

each 2p orbital gets one electron before pairing begins

Slide 41: 

once each 2p orbital is filled with a pair of electrons, then

Slide 42: 

the 3s orbital gets the next two electrons

Slide 43: 

the 3s electrons have a higher energy than 1s, 2s, or 2p electrons,

Slide 44: 

so 3s electrons are generally found further from the nucleus than 1s, 2s, or 2p electrons

Shapes of d Orbitals : 

Shapes of d Orbitals

Shapes of f Orbitals : 

Shapes of f Orbitals

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