Slide 1: Orbitals...
Slide 2: Electrons are part of what
makes an atom an atom
Slide 3: Electrons are part of what
makes an atom an atom atom But where exactly are the
electrons inside an atom?
Slide 4: Orbitals
are areas within atoms
where there is a high probablility
of finding electrons.
Slide 5: It has been determined where the
orbitals are inside an atom, but it
is not known precisely where the
electrons are inside the orbitals
(as described by Heisenburg’s
Uncertainty Principle)
Slide 6: Hey,
where
am I?
Really Bad Chemistry Joke : Really Bad Chemistry Joke
Four Quantum Numbers : Four Quantum Numbers -Principal Quantum Number (n)
Main Energy Levels
-Orbital Quantum Number (l)
Shape of Orbitals, Energy Sublevels
-Magnetic Quantum Number (m)
Orientation of Orbitals, Number of Orbitals
-Spin Quantum Number
Spin on the electron +1/2 or -1/2
Slide 10: The area where an electron can be found,
the orbital,
is defined mathematically,
but we can see it as a specific shape
in 3-dimensional space…
Slide 11: x y z
Slide 12: The 3 axes represent
3-dimensional space x y z
Slide 13: For this presentation, the
nucleus of the atom is at
the center of the three axes. x y z
Slide 14: The 1s orbital is a
sphere, centered
around the nucleus
(l = 0)
Slide 17: The 2s orbital is also
a sphere.
Slide 18: The 2s electrons have a
higher energy than the 1s
electrons. Therefore, the 2s
electrons are generally more
distant from the nucleus,
making the 2s orbital larger
than the 1s orbital.
Slide 19: 1s orbital
Slide 20: 2s orbital
Slide 21: Don’t forget:
an orbital is the shape of the
space where there is a high
probability of finding electrons
Slide 22: The s orbitals are spheres Don’t forget:
an orbital is the shape of the
space where there is a high
probability of finding electrons
Slide 23: This is
one 2p orbital
(2py) x y z
Slide 24: another 2p orbital
(2px) x y z
Slide 25: the third 2p orbital
(2pz) x y z
Slide 26: There are three
2p orbitals
Slide 27: The three 2p orbitals
(l = 1)
are oriented
perpendicular
to each other
Slide 28: Don’t forget:
an orbital is the shape of the
space where there is a high
probability of finding electrons
Slide 29: This is the shape of p orbitals Don’t forget:
an orbital is the shape of the
space where there is a high
probability of finding electrons
Slide 30: x y z
Slide 31: 2px x y z
Slide 32: 2px and 2pz x y z
Slide 33: The three 2p orbitals,
2px, 2py, 2pz x y z
Slide 34: The three 2p orbitals,
2px, 2py, 2pz
(m = -1, 0, +1) x y z
Slide 35: once the
1s orbital
is filled,
Slide 36: the 2s orbital
begins to fill
around the
1s orbital
Slide 37: once the 2s
orbital is
filled,
Slide 38: the 2p orbitals
begin to fill
Slide 39: each 2p orbital
intersects the
2s orbital and
the 1s orbital
Slide 40: each 2p orbital
gets one electron
before pairing begins
Slide 41: once each 2p orbital
is filled with a pair
of electrons, then
Slide 42: the 3s orbital
gets the next
two electrons
Slide 43: the 3s electrons
have a higher energy
than 1s, 2s, or 2p
electrons,
Slide 44: so 3s electrons are
generally found
further from the
nucleus than 1s,
2s, or 2p electrons
Shapes of d Orbitals : Shapes of d Orbitals
Shapes of f Orbitals : Shapes of f Orbitals