Dressen-Radioactive Decay

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Nuclear Binding Energy : 

Nuclear Binding Energy

Nuclear Reactions : 

Nuclear Reactions A nuclear reaction is a reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom. Sometimes called transmutation. A new element is formed. Be 4 9 He 2 4 + --------> 6 12 C + n 0 1 He 2 4 is known as an alpha particle

Types of nuclear reactions : 

Types of nuclear reactions Nuclear Bombardment – shoot a high energy particle at the nucleus of another atom and watch what happens Radioactive Decay – nucleus decays spontaneously giving off an energetic particle

Linear accelerator : 

4 Linear accelerator Charged-particle accelerated in evacuated tube Alternating current causes particle to be pulled into next tube Continues, allowing velocity = 90% speed of light! 2 miles long 

Cyclotron : 

5 Cyclotron Similar alternating voltage used But applied btwn two semicircular halves of cyclotron Particle spirals due to magnets Hits target

Chain Reaction Figure : 

Chain Reaction Figure

Figure 4.9: Schematic diagram of the cascading effect of a typical chain reaction initiated by a single neutron. : 

Figure 4.9: Schematic diagram of the cascading effect of a typical chain reaction initiated by a single neutron. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers

Radioactive Decay : 

Radioactive Decay Discovered by Antoine Henri Becquerel in 1896 He saw that photographic plates developed bright spots when exposed to uranium metals

Radioactive Decay : 

Radioactive Decay The spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter nucleus. Accompanied by emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both.

Marie Sklodowska Curie : 

Marie Sklodowska Curie Shared Nobel Prize 1903 Radiation Phenomenon Nobel Prize 1911 Discovery of Po and Ra.

Types of radioactive decay : 

Types of radioactive decay alpha particle emission - nucleus too big beta emission - too many neutrons positron emission - too many protons electron capture - too many protons gamma emission - energy needs to be released

Alpha Decay : 

Alpha Decay Loss of an -particle (a helium nucleus)

Slide 15: 

Alpha radiation occurs when an unstable nucleus emits a particle composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. The atom giving up the alpha particle has its atomic number reduced by two. Of course, this results in the atom becoming a different element. For example, Rn undergoes alpha decay to Po.

Stable Nuclei : 

Stable Nuclei There are no stable nuclei with an atomic number greater than 83. These nuclei tend to decay by alpha emission.

Beta Decay : 

Beta Decay Loss of a -particle (a high energy electron)  0 −1 + 1 0 n  p 1 1

Slide 18: 

Beta radiation occurs when an unstable nucleus emits an electron. As the emission occurs, a neutron turns into a proton.

Beta Decay : 

Beta Decay Nuclei above this belt have too many neutrons. They tend to decay by emitting beta particles.

Positron Emission : 

Positron Emission Loss of a positron (a particle that has the same mass as but opposite charge than an electron) 1 0 n  p 1 1 0 1 + e

Slide 21: 

Positron emission occurs when an unstable nucleus emits a positron. As the emission occurs, a proton turns into a neutron.

Slide 22: 

Positron emission tomography, also called PET imaging or a PET scan, is a diagnostic examination that involves the acquisition of physiologic images based on the detection of radiation from the emission of positrons. Positrons are tiny particles emitted from a radioactive substance administered to the patient.

Electron Capture (K-Capture) : 

Electron Capture (K-Capture) Addition of an electron to a proton in the nucleus As a result, a proton is transformed into a neutron.

Stable Nuclei : 

Stable Nuclei Nuclei below the belt have too many protons. They tend to become more stable by positron emission or electron capture.

Gamma Emission : 

Gamma Emission Loss of a -ray (high-energy radiation that almost always accompanies the loss of a nuclear particle)

Slide 28: 

RADIOACTIVE DECAY SONG NUCLEAR DECAY ANIMATION

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