Child Development

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Normal child development The reason for knowing child development is so that you can tell when it isn’t going too well:

Normal child development The reason for knowing child development is so that you can tell when it isn’t going too well Safeguarding Group 1

Early years:

Early years The newborn baby 1 month Smiles and tracks people and objects with eyes. Sensitive to light and sound, turning towards source of light. Startles at sudden loud sounds. Establishes interaction with carer through eye contact, spontaneous and imitative facial gestures. At rest keeps hands closed and thumb turned in. Grasps finger. When cheek touched at corner of mouth, turns to same side in attempt to suck finger. Follows pencil light briefly at distance of 30 cm. Stops crying when picked up or spoken to.

3 months:

3 months Visually very alert., particularly preoccupied by nearby human face. Holds rattle for few moments when placed in hand Turns to nearby voice. Responds with pleasure to friendly handling. Begins to react to familiar situations, shown by smiling, coos and excited movements.

6 - 12 months:

6 - 12 months Lying on back, lifts and grasps foot. Back is straight and head is firmly erect when held in sitting position. Kicks strongly with legs alternating. When held standing, bears weight on feet and bounces up and down actively. Immediately stares at interesting small objects or toys within 15-30 cm and stretches out both hands to grasp. Turns immediately to familiar voice across the room. Vocalises tunefully to self and others. Takes everything to mouth. Shows delighted response to active play. Pokes at small objects using index finger. Babbles loudly “mama Dada”. Sits upright and crawls on hands and feet. May stand alone or walk unaided. Plays peek a boo and imitates hand clapping. Immediately responds to own name. Uses both hands freely but may show preference for one. Shows interest in pictures. Understands simple instructions associated with a gesture – “give it to mummy”.

1 – 2 years:

1 – 2 years Imitates what adults are doing and likes to help with tasks. Manipulates cubes and builds tower of 2. Grasps crayon with whole hand and scribbles to and fro. Can talk now and understand words and ideas. Uses between 6 and 20 recognisable words and understands many more. Enjoys nursery rhymes. Likes stories Explores environment. Can walk alone, feet apart arms assisting balance. Can climb stairs. Starting to show independence, but is more comfortable with known people

2 – 31/2 years:

2 – 3 1/2 years Walks up and down stairs. Runs safely on whole foot, stopping and starting with ease and avoiding obstacles. Sits on small bike but cannot pedal at 2, pedals at 3 yrs. Builds tower of 6/7 cubes. Can point to body parts on request. Uses 50 or more recognizable words appropriately. Puts 2 or more words together to form sentences. Engages in make believe play. Constantly demands carers attention. Eats skilfully with spoon and may use fork. Jumps from bottom step (both feet together). Matches 2-3 primary colours (at 3 years). Starts to ask questions “what, where and who”. Washes hands but needs adult supervision with drying.

4 years:

4 years Walks or runs alone up and down stairs, one foot to a step in adult style. Sits with knees crossed. Hops on one foot. Stands and runs on tiptoe. Speech grammatically correct and completely intelligible. Washes and dries hands, brushes teeth. Can undress, dress except for laces and ties. Understands need for taking turns in play. Needs the companionship of other children. General behaviour more independent and strongly self willed. Gives full name, home address and usually age. Eats skilfully.

5 years:

5 years Curious about people and how the world works. Has more confidence in physical skills. Uses words to express their feelings. Likes grown up activities. Shows definite sense of humour. Tender and protective towards younger children and pets. General behaviour more sensible, controlled and independent. Needs constant reminder for tidiness. Engages in elaborate make believe play.

5 - 8 years:

5 - 8 years Can dress themselves. Catches a ball more easily with only their hands. Can easily tie their shoes. Developing independence from family becomes more important now. Events such as starting school bring children this age into regular contact with the larger world. Friendships become more and more important. Physical, social, and mental skills develop rapidly at this time. This is a critical time for children to develop confidence in all areas of life, such as through friends, schoolwork, and sports.

PowerPoint Presentation:

9 – 11 years 12 – 14 years Growing independence from the family and interest in friends might be obvious by now. Healthy friendships are very important to your child’s development, but peer pressure can become strong during this time. Children who feel good about themselves are more able to resist negative peer pressure and make better choices for themselves. This is an important time for children to gain a sense of responsibility along with their growing independence. Also, physical changes of puberty might be showing by now, especially for girls. Another big change children need to prepare for during this time is starting middle or junior high school More concern about body image, looks, and clothes. Focus on self, going back and forth between high expectations and lack of confidence. Moodiness. More interest in and influence by peer group. Less affection shown toward parents. May sometimes seem rude or short-tempered. Anxiety from more challenging school work. Eating problems sometimes start at this age. Has more ability for complex thought. Better able to express feelings through talking Has a stronger sense of right and wrong. Many teens sometimes feel sad or depressed. Depression can lead to poor grades at school, alcohol or drug use, unsafe sex, and other problems.

15 – 17 years:

15 – 17 years Middle adolescence is a time of physical, mental, cognitive, and sexual changes for teenagers. Most girls will be physically mature by now, and most will have completed puberty. Boys might still be maturing physically during this time. They may have concerns about her body size, shape, or weight. Eating disorders can also be common, especially among females. During this phase of development, the teenager is developing their unique personality and opinions. Peer relationships are still important, yet will have other interests as he develops a more clear sense of identity. Middle adolescence is also an important time to prepare for more independence and responsibility; such as part time work, and many will be leaving home soon after high school. Increased interest in the opposite sex. Decreased conflict with parents. Increased independence from parents. Deeper capacity for caring and sharing and the development of more intimate relationships . Decreased time spent with parents and more time spent with peers

The importance of parenting:

The importance of parenting Most intense in first 5 years of a child's life Child most dependent on parents for physical and emotional nurture and protection Good enough parenting delivered consistently over this period enables attachment and fosters child's basic sense of security This sense of security is essential for subsequent mental health, self-esteem and positive relationships Once acquired it is a firm foundation for life

Basic good parenting:

Basic good parenting Low level of criticism High level of warmth and praise Time spent with children Child focused activities Communication United Front Enjoy each other Consistent boundaries and routines

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