Azar 13: Gerunds and Infinitives

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13: Gerunds and Infinitives : 

13: Gerunds and Infinitives LSW: Grammar Foundation Shoup

Unit Calendar: : 

Unit Calendar: Mon (Nov 16) 13-1: Verb + Gerund 13-2: Go + -ing 13-3: Verb + Infinitive Wed (Nov 18) 13-4: Verb + gerund or infinitive 13-5: Preposition + gerund Mon (Nov 23) 13-6: by and with 13-7: gerunds as subjects and it + inf. 13-8: It + inf.; For Wed (Nov 25) 13-9: in order to and for 13-10: too and enough Quiz: All of Ch. 13

Unit Homework : 

Unit Homework Due Wed (Nov 18) Chapter 13 Notes Part 1 Due Mon (Nov 23) Chapter 13 Notes Part 2 Due Wed (Nov 25) Extra Practice Packet for Chapter 13 This homework will count for a grade. Please complete it on time. I will not take any LATE homework.

What do you enjoy doing on the weekends? : 

What do you enjoy doing on the weekends? I enjoy…

What are you thinking about doing over the summer break? : 

What are you thinking about doing over the summer break? I am thinking about…

When did you first consider moving to the U.S.? : 

When did you first consider moving to the U.S.? I first considered moving to the U.S….

What are the underlined words? : 

What are the underlined words? I enjoy reading on the weekend. I am thinking about going to New York this summer. I first considered moving to the U.S. three years ago. GERUNDS!!! How do you form a gerund? verb -ing What is a gerund? It is the –ing form of a verb that acts like a noun.

Other words look like gerunds, but they aren’t. Which ones are gerunds here? : 

Other words look like gerunds, but they aren’t. Which ones are gerunds here? Tom is going to go to the movies this afternoon. I enjoy going to the movies on the weekends. I found the movie to be boring. We talked about getting a new dog, but I’m not sure yet. We are getting a new dog tomorrow. present progressive gerund adjective gerund present progressive

Common Verbs that come before gerunds… : 

Common Verbs that come before gerunds… enjoy finish stop quit mind postpone put off keep (on) consider think about discuss talk about Let’s read the example sentences on page 368. Choose 3 and make your own sentences. Subj + Verb + Gerund

Complete these sentences with a gerund or gerund phrase : 

Complete these sentences with a gerund or gerund phrase It was cold and rainy yesterday, so we postponed ________________ the zoo. The Porters’ house is too small. They’re considering _________________ a bigger house. We discussed ________________ Colorado for our vacation. going to buying traveling to

Exercise 1, page 369 : 

Exercise 1, page 369 Complete each sentence with a gerund or gerund phrase. You may need to add prepositions after the gerund.

Let’s Check… : 

Let’s Check… going to / driving to / flying to washing / sweeping / vacuuming / mopping / cleaning doing / finishing / studying snowing reading / buying taking / signing up for / registering for looking for / changing to watching / playing / taking part in / reading about visiting / moving to / moving out of / traveling to talking working / painting / playing closing / shutting / opening attending / going to Practice saying 12 – 15 with your partner. Switch.

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped ______________? A: Yes. B: Let’s go. raining

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: I’ve been having a lot of trouble with my old car. I’m thinking about ________ a new one. B: Do you think you’ll get a BMW? A: No, I’m considering ___________ a Honda. buying getting

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy __________ a good book. reading

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: Good news! I feel great. I don’t cough anymore, and I can breathe more easily. B: Oh? A: I quit __________. B: That’s wonderful! smoking

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour, and I still don’t understand it. B: Well, don’t give up. Keep __________. If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again. trying

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. That’s someone who always postpones ________ things. B: Oh. Well, sometimes I put off _________ my homework. doing doing

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: What are you doing? B: I’m helping Teddy with his homework. A: When you finish __________ him, could you help me in the kitchen? B: Sure. helping

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop __________. It’s driving me crazy! whistling

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: Do you have any plans this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about _________ to the zoo on Saturday. going

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: I didn’t understand what you said. Would you mind _________ that? B: Of course not. I said, “Three free trees.” repeating

Exercise 3, page 371 : 

Exercise 3, page 371 Column A + Column B I often postpone + write = I often postpone writing thank you notes. Write 9 sentences.

Interview your partner… : 

Interview your partner… How many times do you usually go shopping every week? How often do you go swimming? When’s the last time you went bowling?

Idiomatic Expressions: Go + Gerund : 

Idiomatic Expressions: Go + Gerund We often use go + gerund for idiomatic expressions about activities. There is no “to” between go and the gerund: I like to go to swimming. With your partner, see if you can figure out the expression.

go hiking : 

go hiking

go skating : 

go skating

go bowling : 

go bowling

go jogging / go running : 

go jogging / go running

go sailing / go boating : 

go sailing / go boating

go skiing : 

go skiing

Exercise 4, pages 372 - 373 : 

Exercise 4, pages 372 - 373 Student A You ask the odd numbers (1, 3, 5, 7…). Example: A: Ann often goes to the beach. She spends hours in the water. What does she like to do? B: She likes to go swimming. Student B You ask the even numbers (2, 4, 6, …). Example: B: Nancy and Frank like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. What do they like to do? A: They like to go fishing.

Interview Your Partner… : 

Interview Your Partner… What do you want to do after class? What would you like to do this weekend? What is something you often forget to do?

Where are the infinitives? : 

Where are the infinitives? I want to eat lunch after class. I would like to see a movie this weekend. I often forget to write thank-you notes. How do you form an infinitive? to base form of the verb How do you form the negative? not

Common verbs that come before Infinitives : 

Common verbs that come before Infinitives want need would like would love hope expect plan intend mean decide promise offer agree refuse seem appear pretend forget learn (how) try (can’t) afford (can’t) wait Choose 3 and write 3 sentences: Subj + Verb + Infinitive

Complete the sentences with an infinitive… : 

Complete the sentences with an infinitive… I’m planning ________________ Chicago next week. I’ve decided ______________ a new apartment. to go to to rent Wed.

Exercise 5, page 373 - 374 : 

Exercise 5, page 373 - 374 Complete the sentences by using infinitives. Add a preposition after the infinitive if you need to.

Let’s Check… : 

Let’s Check… to find / to rent to be to buy / to get to visit / to go to / to see to go to / to visit / to live in to do / to finish to get to / to arrive in to watch to be to be to be…to hear to buy to become / to be to lend / to loan / to give to eat to go to … to attend to pass to get to / to be in to see / to be with to hurt / to offend / to ignore / to interrupt / to embarrass to swim / to read / to answer the phone / to tell time

Let’s Check your Homework : 

Let’s Check your Homework Class Notes Chapter 13 Part I Please take it out and I will come around and check it.

Interview your partner… : 

Interview your partner… When did you begin to learn English? When did you begin studying ESOL at CyFair College? What do you love doing on the weekends? What kinds of movies do you love to watch?

Some verbs can be followed by a gerund OR an infinitive!! : 

Some verbs can be followed by a gerund OR an infinitive!! I began to learn English when I was 15 years old. I began studying at CyFair College 2 years ago. an infinitive a gerund

Common Verbs Followed by a Gerund or an Infinitive: : 

Common Verbs Followed by a Gerund or an Infinitive: begin start continue like love hate can’t stand Examples: I continued studying English after I moved to the United States. I continued to study English after I moved to the United States.

Exercise 6, page 375 : 

Exercise 6, page 375 Just talk. Don’t write. Make 2 kinds of sentences for each: subject + verb + gerund subject + verb + infinitive

Exercise 7, page 375 : 

Exercise 7, page 375 Use handout. Complete the sentences on the handout with the actions (1-15) on page 375. You can choose any action to complete your sentences. (They don’t have to be in order – just put your true interests.)

Gerund or Infinitive or Both? : 

Gerund or Infinitive or Both? I need ________________ tonight. (study) I enjoy _______________ fancy meals. (cook) Ellen started _________________ about her problem. (talk) to study cooking to talk / talking

Exercise 8, page 376: 4 – 24 : 

Exercise 8, page 376: 4 – 24 Choose the correct form of each word to complete the sentences (gerund or infinitive or both) Look back at the lists: verb + gerund (only) – page 368 verb + infinitive (only) – page 373 verb + gerund or infinitive – page 374

Let’s Check… : 

Let’s Check… to get eating to meet / meeting to help to watch / watching cracking to feed to be moving to go / going to lock living to take to give to hire / hiring…coming to say to go shopping to want to go sailing sleeping trying to grow being

More Review: Gerund, Infinitive, or Both? : 

More Review: Gerund, Infinitive, or Both? Exercise 10, pages 377 – 378 Look back at the lists: verb + gerund (only) – page 368 verb + infinitive (only) – page 373 verb + gerund or infinitive – page 374

Let’s Check… : 

Let’s Check… to relax to stay…relax to stay…relax…go getting watching getting…watching getting…watching… listening selling…buying to move…find…start painting to go…buy going…having to be / being going to stop making quitting…going to leave…return washing to unplug…turn off..lock to understand to stop driving to reach…to keep trying

Interview your partner… : 

Interview your partner… Are you afraid of swimming in the ocean? Do you plan on studying English in the summer? Do you ever have to apologize for being late? Are you good at playing any sports? Which ones?

Prepositions before Gerunds : 

Prepositions before Gerunds I am afraid of swimming in the ocean. subject + be-verb + adjective + preposition + gerund I plan on studying English next semester. subject + verb + preposition + gerund I apologized for being late yesterday. subject + verb + preposition + gerund I am good at playing soccer. subject + be-verb + adjective + preposition + gerund see handout Prepositions can only followed by gerunds, never infinitives!! be + adjective + preposition + gerund or verb + preposition + gerund see list on page 381

Which preposition follows? : 

Which preposition follows? looking forward thank (someone) worry be interested apologize be afraid be nervous be excited insist to for about in for of about about on Mon. Take out your HW

Which preposition follows? : 

Which preposition follows? dream feel forgive (someone) be tired believe plan be responsible stop (someone) be good about like for of in on for from at

Exercise 13, pages 381 – 382Just say it to your partner.A  even; B  odd : 

Exercise 13, pages 381 – 382Just say it to your partner.A  even; B  odd Make sentences with each group of words. Add the correct preposition (Use the chart on page 381 if you need to.). Make the main verb a gerund. Example: I’m looking forward + go to the zoo I’m looking forward to going to the zoo.

Complete the sentences… : 

Complete the sentences… I believe ________ (tell) _________________ the truth no matter what. I wish the weather would get better. I’m tired ________ (be) ______________ inside all the time. in telling of being

Exercise 15, pages 382 - 383 : 

Exercise 15, pages 382 - 383 Using the verbs in parentheses, complete the sentences with prepositions and gerunds. Use chart on page 381 if you need to.

Let’s Check… : 

Let’s Check… of drowning about meeting for helping in going about visiting about pleasing to taking like telling for lying on paying for causing at remembering about/of quitting from doing on eating for spilling of losing

Interview Your Partner : 

Interview Your Partner Have you ever studied by practicing grammar online? Have you ever tried to improve your health by dieting? How often do you travel by taxi? Do you ever do your taxes with an online program?

How are “by” and “with” used? : 

How are “by” and “with” used? I have tried to improve my health by dieting. I sometimes travel by taxi. I did my taxes with an online program. by + gerund by + noun with + noun To show how something is done

Common Uses of “by” and “with” : 

Common Uses of “by” and “with” by by + gerund means of transportation by plane by car by foot means of communication by mail by phone by email others by hand* with instruments with an ax with a broom parts of the body with her finger with her hand* See chart on page 384 (13-6)

Complete each sentence with “by + gerund” : 

Complete each sentence with “by + gerund” Students can practice written English ________________ compositions. We clean our clothes ___________________ them in soap and water. Khalid improved his English ____________________ a lot of TV. by writing by washing by watching

Complete Exercise 17, page 385(# 4 – 18) : 

Complete Exercise 17, page 385(# 4 – 18) by + gerund 4-10: use verbs from the box as gerunds 11-18: use your own words as gerunds

Let’s Check… : 

Let’s Check… by smiling by eating by drinking by guessing by waving by wagging by staying…by taking Now, let’s here some possible answers for 11 – 18…

What is it? : 

What is it? Look at the following tools/objects and identify them with your partner…

a broom : 

a broom

a hammer : 

a hammer

a needle : 

a needle

thread : 

thread

a pair of scissors : 

a pair of scissors

a saw : 

a saw

a shovel : 

a shovel

a spoon : 

a spoon

a thermometer : 

a thermometer

Exercise 18, page 386 : 

Exercise 18, page 386 with + noun use the list of nouns in the box I swept the floor with a broom.

Let’s Check : 

Let’s Check with a broom with a needle and thread with a saw with a thermometer with a spoon with a shovel with a hammer with a pair of scissors

with or by? : 

with or by? I opened the door ____________ a key. I went to Cherryville __________ bus. I dried the dishes ___________ a dishtowel I went to Portland __________ train. with by with by

Exercise 19, page 3865-14 : 

Exercise 19, page 3865-14 by with

Let’s Check : 

Let’s Check with with by with by by with by with by

Agree or Disagree? : 

Agree or Disagree? Read each sentence to your partner. Tell your partner if you agree or disagree and why.

Speaking English is easy. : 

Speaking English is easy.

Watching scary movies is fun. : 

Watching scary movies is fun.

Going shopping is something I like to do. : 

Going shopping is something I like to do.

Gerunds as Subjects : 

Gerunds as Subjects Speaking English is easy. Watching scary movies is fun. Going shopping is something I like to do. Usually the first word of the sentence. Always SINGULAR

Agree or Disagree? : 

Agree or Disagree? Read each sentence to your partner. Tell your partner if you agree or disagree and why.

It is fun to ride horses. : 

It is fun to ride horses.

It is easy to bake a cake. : 

It is easy to bake a cake.

It is difficult to spell English words. : 

It is difficult to spell English words.

It + Infinitive : 

It + Infinitive It is fun to ride horses. It is easy to bake a cake. It is difficult to spell English words. It is the subject of the sentence. Common: It + be-verb + adjective + infinitive phrase

These sentences mean the same thing… : 

These sentences mean the same thing… Speaking English is easy. It is easy to speak English. It is fun to ride horses. Riding horses is fun.

Change this to a gerund as subject sentence… : 

Change this to a gerund as subject sentence… It is important to get daily exercise. It isn’t hard to make friends. Getting daily exercise is important. Making friends isn’t hard.

Exercise 20, page 387 : 

Exercise 20, page 387 A: Read the sentence to your partner. B: Tell your partner the same sentence as a gerund as subject sentence. A: It is easy to cook rice. B: Cooking rice is easy.

Exercise 21, page 387 : 

Exercise 21, page 387 A: Read the sentence to your partner. B: Tell your partner the same sentence as an it + infinitive sentence. A: Having good friends is important. B: It is important to have good friends. Wed.

It is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive phrase : 

It is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive phrase It is important for you to study. It is important for Mary to study. It isn’t necessary for us to go to the meeting. It is impossible for a dog to talk.

Change to: It is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive phrase : 

Change to: It is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive phrase Students should do their homework. It’s important _____________________________. Teachers should speak clearly. It’s important _____________________________. for students to do their homework for teachers to speak clearly

Exercise 23, page 388 - 389 : 

Exercise 23, page 388 - 389 #3 – 12 Change to: It is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive phrase

Let’s Check… : 

Let’s Check… for us to hurry for a fish to live out of water for more than a few minutes for students to budget their time carefully for a child to sit still for a long time for my family to eat turkey on Thanksgiving Day for people to take trips to the moon

Let’s Check (cont)… : 

Let’s Check (cont)… for me to understand Mr. Alvarez for the guests to wait until the hostess begins to eat for the bride to feed the groom the first piece of wedding cake for me to understand our teacher

Complete each sentence with your partner… : 

Complete each sentence with your partner… It’s easy for _____ to _____. It’s traditional for ____ to _____. It’s impossible for _____ to ______. It’s difficult for _____ to ________. It takes ____ minutes to ______. It takes patience to ________. It takes a lot of money to ____.

Practice twice… : 

Practice twice… A: Why did you go to the language lab? B: I went to the language lab to practice my pronunciation.

Practice twice. : 

Practice twice. A: Why are you wearing that hat? B: I’m wearing this hat in order to stay warm.

Expressing Purpose with Infinitives : 

Expressing Purpose with Infinitives I went to the post office because I wanted to mail a letter. I went to the post office to mail a letter. I went to the post office in order to mail a letter.

Why did you call the hotel desk? : 

Why did you call the hotel desk? I called the hotel desk… keep their feet warm and dry listen to a ball game ask for an extra pillow help her pay the rent in order to “I called the hotel desk in order to ask for an extra pillow.”

Exercise 29, page 392 : 

Exercise 29, page 392 Just talk. Don’t write. A  1, 3, 5, 7, 9 B  2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Column A in order to Column B

Using “for” to express purpose : 

Using “for” to express purpose I went to the post office for some stamps. for + noun phrase Incorrect: I went to the post office for to buy some stamps. I went to the post office for buying some stamps.

to or for? : 

to or for? I went to Chicago _________ a visit. I went to Chicago _________ visit my aunt and uncle. I take long walks _______ relax. I take long walks ________ relaxation. for to to for n. v. v. n.

Exercise 30, page 393 : 

Exercise 30, page 393 to or for # 5 - 15

Let’s Check : 

Let’s Check for to to for for to to for for to

Interview your partner… : 

Interview your partner… Are you too busy to sleep eight hours a night? Are you strong enough to lift 50 pounds? Is 3:00 too late to eat lunch? Do you have enough time to exercise everyday?

Partner Work : 

Partner Work Unscramble the sentences. There are three sentences (notice the color). Put them in order to make a grammatically correct sentence. Let’s Check…

Answers : 

Answers Green: Blue: Red: That box is too heavy for Bob to lift. I don’t have enough money to buy that car. Jimmy isn’t old enough to go to school.

Using Infinitives withToo and Enough : 

Using Infinitives withToo and Enough too + adjective + (for someone) + infinitive enough + noun + infinitive adjective + enough + infinitive That box is too heavy for Bob to lift. I don’t have enough money to buy that car. Jimmy isn’t old enough to go to school.

We can’t go swimming today. It’s very cold. : 

We can’t go swimming today. It’s very cold. It’s too __________ to __________________. cold go swimming

I couldn’t finish my homework last night. I was very sleepy. : 

I couldn’t finish my homework last night. I was very sleepy. I was too __________ to _________________. sleepy finish my homework

This jacket is very small. I can’t wear it. : 

This jacket is very small. I can’t wear it. This jacket is too ___________ to _________. small wear

Mike couldn’t go to his aunt’s housewarming party. He was very busy. : 

Mike couldn’t go to his aunt’s housewarming party. He was very busy. He was too busy to go.

I live far from school. I can’t walk there. : 

I live far from school. I can’t walk there. I live too far to walk to school.

Some movies are very violent. Children shouldn’t watch them. : 

Some movies are very violent. Children shouldn’t watch them. Some movies are too violent for children to watch.

I can’t reach the top shelf. I’m not that tall. : 

I can’t reach the top shelf. I’m not that tall. I’m not ________ enough to ___________ the shelf. tall reach

I can’t lift a horse. I’m not that strong. : 

I can’t lift a horse. I’m not that strong. I’m not ________ enough to ___________ a horse. strong lift

It’s not warm today. We can’t go outside in shorts and sandals. : 

It’s not warm today. We can’t go outside in shorts and sandals. It’s not warm enough to wear shorts and sandals.

I didn’t stay home and miss work. I wasn’t really sick, but I didn’t feel good all day. : 

I didn’t stay home and miss work. I wasn’t really sick, but I didn’t feel good all day. I wasn’t sick enough to miss work.

Exercise 33, page 394 : 

Exercise 33, page 394 Complete the sentences by choosing from the words in italics. Use too or enough + infinitive

Let’s Check : 

Let’s Check too busy to answer early enough to get too full to hold large enough to hold too big to get big enough to hold

too enough Ø : 

too enough Ø Alan is ___________ smart ___________ to make that kind of mistake. Alan is ___________ smart ____________ to understand how to solve that problem. too Ø Ø enough

Exercise 34, page 395 : 

Exercise 34, page 395 too enough Ø

Let’s Check : 

Let’s Check Ø…enough too… Ø too… Ø too… Ø Ø…enough Ø…enough too… Ø

Complete each sentence with your own information… : 

Complete each sentence with your own information… I’m too short to ________. I’m not strong enough to ________. Last night I was too busy to ________. I don’t have enough money to ________.

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