research design and exploratory (1)

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Introduction to Research Design and Exploratory Research:

Introduction to Research Design and Exploratory Research Jeremy Kees, Ph.D.


Stages in the Research Process Determine Research Design Analyze and Interpret the Data Design Sample and Collect Data Formulate Problem Design Data Collection Method and Forms Prepare the Research Report

Overview of Research Design:

Overview of Research Design Exploratory “discovery” Descriptive “relationships” Causal “cause-and-effect” Example: Kees, Jeremy, Paula Bone, John Kozup and Pam Scholder Ellen (forthcoming), “Barely or Fairly Balancing the Black Box? Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Internet Promotion,” Psychology and Marketing .

Descriptive Research:

Descriptive Research Describe what is going on or exists Estimate how groups of consumers might behave Examine relationships between two or more variables Predict

Descriptive Research:

Descriptive Research Two Basic Types Longitudinal Cross-Sectional

Causal Research :

Causal Research Helps us determine if one or more IVs (treatment, predictors) causes or affects one or more DVs (outcome variables) Most demanding design—strongest conclusion Requires the highest degree of understanding of the problem

Overview of Research Design:

Exploratory Research Causal Research Descriptive Research Formulate problems more precisely Develop Hypotheses Establish priorities for research Eliminate impractical ideas Clarify concepts Literature search Experience survey Analysis of select cases Interviews Ethnographies Focus groups Etc. Describe segment characteristics Estimate proportion of people who behave in a certain way Make specific predictions Longitudinal study Panels Sample Survey Provide evidence regarding causal relationships Rule out all other explanations Laboratory experiment Field experiment Uses Types Overview of Research Design


8 Descriptive Research Exploratory Research Causal Research Relationship Among Research Designs

Qualitative versus Quantitative Research:

Qualitative versus Quantitative Research Data Quantitative = numeric data Qualitative = non-numeric data Caveat – all qualitative data can be coded and all quantitative data is based on judgment Common Assumption: Qualitative Data = preliminary Quantitative Data = confirmatory


10 Qualitative Research To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of non-representative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Objective Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

Focus Groups:

11 Focus groups: small group discussions led by a trained moderator Objectives: Generate ideas Understand consumer vocabulary Reveal consumer needs, motives, perceptions, and attitudes on products and services Understand findings from quantitative studies Focus Groups


12 Advantages: Generation of fresh ideas Client interaction Versatility Ability to tap special respondents Disadvantages: Representative of the population? Subjective interpretation High cost-per-participant Focus Groups


13 Group Size 8-12 Group Composition Homogeneous respondents, prescreened Physical Setting Relaxed, informal atmosphere Time Duration 1-3 hours Recording Audiocassettes and/or Video Moderator Observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator Focus Group Characteristics

Procedure for Planning and Contacting Focus Groups:

Procedure for Planning and Contacting Focus Groups Determine the Objectives and Define the Problem Specify the Objectives of Qualitative Research Develop a Moderator’s Outline Conduct the Focus Group Interviews Review Tapes and Analyze the Data Summarize the Findings and Plan Follow-Up Research or Action State the Objectives/Questions to be Answered by Focus Groups Write a Screening Questionnaire

Moderator’s Role:

15 Focus group moderator: a person who conducts the entire sessions and guides the flow of group discussion across specific topics desired by the client Characteristics: Experienced Enthusiastic Prepared Involved Energetic Open-minded Moderator’s Role

Other Popular Qualitative Techniques:

16 In-Depth interview: is a set of probing questions posed one-on-one to a subject by a trained interviewer so as to gain an idea of what the subject thinks about something or why he or she behaves a certain way Protocol analysis: involves placing a person in a decision making situation and asking him or her to verbalize everything he or she considers when making a decision Other Popular Qualitative Techniques


17 Focus Groups Group dynamics, expect more creative Some probing Relatively inexpensive Ready industry Interviews Not influenced by others Max probing, great depth Expensive Time consuming Candid, sensitive topics Qualitative Flexible Probing Richness of data Gets at the “Why” of customers’ behaviors Generates ideas Clarifies other project results Popular Qualitative Research Methods

Still Other Qualitative Methods:

Still Other Qualitative Methods Ethnographies developing understandings of the everyday activities of people in local settings Observation Insight into actual, not reported, behaviors Projective Techniques participants are placed in (projected into) simulated activities in the hopes that they will divulge things about themselves that they might not reveal under direct questioning

“Alternative” Techniques:

“Alternative” Techniques Implicit Association Test Kees, Jeremy, Elizabeth H. Creyer, and Eric S. Knowles (2005), “Re-Examining Smokers’ Perceived Vulnerability to Disease: Self-Report Measures May Not Tell the Whole Story,” In Karin M. Ekström and Helene Brembeck (Eds.), European Association for Consumer Research Proceedings , Göteborg, Sweden. Resistometer Eye Tracking

Mystery Shopping:

Mystery Shopping Mystery shoppers are people who pose as consumers and shop at a company’s own stores or those of its competitors to collect data about customer-employee interactions and to gather observational data; they may also compare prices, displays, and the like

Mystery Shopping:

Mystery Shopping Purpose of Mystery Shopping Evaluate customer service Measure employee training Recognize good employees Monitoring the competition Prepare for competition

Mystery Shopping:

Mystery Shopping Level 1 – mystery telephone call. Mystery shopper calls the client location & evaluates the level of service received over the phone following a scripted conversation. Level 2 – mystery shopper visits the establishment, makes a quick purchase (e.g. gas, a hamburger, etc.) & evaluates the transaction & image of the facility. Little or no customer-employee interaction required. Level 3 – mystery shopper visits the establishment and, using a script or scenario, initiates a conversation with an employee. No actual purchase is involved. Examples: discussing different cellular phone packages, reviewing services provided during an oil change, etc. Level 4 – mystery shopper performs a visit that requires excellent communication skills & knowledge of the product. Examples: discussing a home loan, the process for purchasing a new car, visiting an apartment complex.

Sam’s Club MS Protocol:

23 Sam’s Club MS Protocol Were there lots of carts or flat beds in the parking lot and not in the cart corral? Make sure you pass by some associates on the sales floor during your shopping trip. Did they acknowledge you in some manner, either by eye contact, smile, nod, or verbal greeting when you came within 10 feet of them? Did any associate ask you if you found everything you were looking for? As you approached the cash registers in the checkout area… Did the checkout area appear to be busy (long lines, activity)? If yes, did you see an associate directing members to certain checkout lanes? If no, explain.


24 Were you checked out within 5 minutes? Start timing when you enter the checkout line. Stop when handed your receipt. ___Min. ___Sec. Were boxes or bags available near the front of your checkout lane for packing items? Mark the following observations that you made of the Cashier Associate: Smiled and greeted you Called you by name at any time Thanked you Checked the bottom of your cart for additional merchandise Name of cashier ____________ Sam’s Club MS Protocol


25 As you were leaving the club, did the exit greeter thank you for your business? Mark the following observations you made of the restroom: Clean sinks and toilets All dispensers full (soap, toweling, toilet paper) Relatively free of litter Equipment and stalls operable Floors clean Was the club clean and relatively free of litter? Were the price signs on the merchandise in the club visible and easy to read? Sam’s Club MS Protocol

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods:

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods Theory Is the goal to test new or existing theory?

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods:

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods Level of Understanding Sought Complex / Sensitive issues are tough to examine with quantitative methods Kurtz, David, Jeremy Kees, and Travis Tokar (2004), “An Examination of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Factors that Affect Research Productivity of Marketing Academicians,” Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education , 4, 9-15.

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods:

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods Detail versus Generalizability Quantitative Methods Generalizations to other populations and/or situations Qualitative Methods Rich Understanding

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods:

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods Philosophy Epistemological Assumptions Contextual Factors Ontological Assumptions What is reality?


Tonight… Identify your research objectives for your focus group Get started on a script Think about who you’re going to recruit (8-10 people or so) for 10/3