How does stock Market in India works - A Basic Tutorial Guide for Begi

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How does stock Market in India works - A Basic Tutorial Guide for Beginner The stock market investment is a vital option to make money in India. In order to understand its working one needs to know its basics. Therefore to help you understand the same some of the important components of the stock market are explained in the given text. What Are A Stock And Share Stock refers to partnership in a corporation. Corporate companies sell stocks as a way to raise money for their business. One stock contains a certain number of shares which can be purchased and sold by the market investors. The shares go up or down on the basis of factors like Economic and Industry conditions. The reports of strong earnings can increase the share price while as reports of a layoff can reduce the share price. For example a Sweet Shop owner invested Rs.1000 in a Pharmaceutical company if company’s Stock price was listed at Rs.50 per share he could purchase 20 shares of its stock. And if in the future the prices of the shares jumped to Rs.60 per share he will be able to earn Rs.200 profit 20 shares at Rs.10 per share How A Company In India Make Public Its Shares A company in India makes its sharespublic in multiple ways. A corporate company can issue shares to the general public with SEBI approval. A Private Ltd can issue shares to relatives friends or business partners etc. It can’t invite people to purchase its shares and also can’t issue shares to more than 200 investors as per 2013 Companies Act. Here are some main methods via which a company in India makes public its shares both Limited and Private Ltd. companies. 1 Initial Public Offering IPO Initial Public Offering is when the company which is still unlisted issues fresh shares or keeps its existing shares on sale. It is the first step of a new company in the direction of listing its shares in a stock market. You should research an IPO thoroughly for shares. 2 Follow on Public Offering Follow on public offering is another way for a company in India to make its shares public. When a company which is already listed sells its shares to the public or keeps its existing shares on sale then it is called Follow-on Public Offering. 3 Rights Issue Rights Issue means when a listed company issues fresh securities to its already existing shareholders on a record date. Rights Issue is meant to raise capital without diluting the stakes of existing shareholders. 4 Private Placement Private placement means when a company offers shares to a selected group of persons via private placement offer letter. Next you should have an overview of stock exchanges and its working.

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The stock Exchanges In order to understand the working mechanism of stock exchanges let us understand what Limit Order and Market Order are: Market Order: The order available at the best current price generally placed by an investor with the help of a broker. Limit Order: a take-profit order to sell or buy a stock at a specific price. The investors limit the time duration for which the order remains open before it gets canceled. There are two stock exchanges in India which generally take care of stock exchanges. The National Stock Exchange abbreviated as NSE and Bombay Stock exchange abbreviated as BSE. The latter has been going on since 1875 whereas NSE came into existence 1992. The trading mechanism settlement process and trading hours are same for both the exchanges. The firms in India need to list themselves in order to sell their stocks. The process of selling and buying a stock at these exchanges is order driven. The trading computer takes care of order matching which is placed using limit order book. The market orders are matched with the best limit orders. In the entire process the buyer and sellers remain anonymous ensuring more transparency.

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The brokers place all the orders in the trading system. The investors who are institutional can reap the advantage preferential treatment using DMA Direct Market Access and place their orders directly. How does Stock Price Go Up and Down Just like the prices of any commodity the prices of a stock are also driven by demand and supply. If there is an increased demand for a stock its prices go up. Contrarily if there are more people willing to sell a stock than people willing to buy it the prices will go down. Understanding the law of supply and demand is easy. What is more difficult to understand is that how a stock of a company becomes more or less favorable. Whenever there is positive news about a company the demand for its stock rises the demand can fall if opposite is the case. Determining whether the price of a particular stock will go up and down is very difficult. One of the ways of doing so is maintaining a portfolio of shares of different companies. The price of the stock of a company is an indication of its worth. In general cases whenever the stock price is high the company is seemingly doing well. However the value of a company is not measured in terms of its stock price but in terms of its outstanding shares. For instance if a company has 1000 outstanding shares valued at Rs.50 is worth more than a company with outstanding shares 800 valued higher at Rs.60. How much money do you need to start investing in the stock market Contrary to popular opinion one does not need a bucket load of money to invest in the stock market. If you are a beginning investor or a regular working person then all you need is an idea about the shares of the company worth investing for. There are several firms in India which sell their share at Rs.100 or even less. You can buy in accordance to your financial capacity. Just make sure that you are picking the best stock with the available options. How can you enter stock market in India Entering stock market in India is very easy. Here are some basic requirements you need to fulfill. Stock Broker The stockbrokers are the members of the stock exchange that help you buy stock. These brokers are registered with SEBI the Security and Exchange Board of India. You have the option of choosing from a number of brokers and sub-brokers. Saving Account A person needs to have a saving account in order to invest in the stock market in India. Demat A/C You will also need a Demat A/c in a bank for entering the stock market. There are several banks such as ICICI Kotak and SBI that offer the 3-in-1 account entailing Trading account Demat and Savings. You just need to fill a few forms and get a Demat A/c opened in a bank. In addition to it you will also need an internet connection and laptop to carry out the transactions. Documents required

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You will need identity documents such as Aadhar Card Pan Card and ID proof to buy stock. Once you get a Demat A/c opened you can start to trade. For a better understanding of the stock market here are a few terms you should be familiar with: Intraday Trading: In an intraday trading the stocks are purchased not with the intent of an investment but for earning a profit. The buying and selling of stock take place the same day. The Intraday trading orders need to be specified that these are intraday trading orders. Margin leverage: the leverage and Margin are other two important terms that the investors need to understand. The margin is a kind of loan that a broker provides to the investors using which they can leverage their existing stock and buy more. Leverage is the added buying power that allows the investors to buy more stock. It is expressed in a ratio such 2:1. When you have 2:1 leverage it means you can but stock worth Rs.5000 for Rs.2500 of securities. Square off: it is a trading style where securities are bought and sold on the same day with the intent of earning profit. Stop-Loss: it is an advanced trade order placed during trading. This order specifies that when a stock reaches a certain price it can be sold Bracket Order: Bracketing order helps to limit the loss during trading. Using a Bracket order ensures that your main order gets executed on top of a profit taking or stop-loss order and the remaining order gets canceled automatically without any intervention. Derivative Future and Option: Future and option put different obligations on the sellers and buyers. An option gives a right to the buyer to sell a security at a specified price whereas the Future puts an obligation on the buyer to purchase sell a security at a specified date. Lastly you need to know about the different charges on trading Different Charges on Trading There are several charges that are levied on share trading. Some of the important charges are: Brokerage charge: the fee charged by the brokers is called the brokerage charges. The brokers have their own models for charging the investors. STT: it stands for security transaction tax. It is levied on both the purchase and sale of a security at the rate of 0.1 of a total transaction normally and 0.025 for an Intraday transaction. For instance if you are buying shares for Rs.1000 the STT will Re 1. Service charge: it remains same for both the delivery and Intraday trading i.e. 15 of the brokerage charge. Stamp Duty: Different states have different stamp duties. In Maharashtra it is 0.002 for intraday trading and 0.01 for trading. In Delhi it is 0.0025 for an Intraday as well as for the delivery. Transaction charges: NSE charges 0.00325 as the transaction fee. BSE charges 0.00275 of the total amount as the transaction fee. SEBI Turnover Charge: It is .0002 of the amount and is charged on both sides. DP charges

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There are two types of depositories NSDL and CDSL in India. A share is kept in an electronic form whenever it is bought. For this service an amount is charged. The investors are not directly charged for this but the participants are charged at a flat rate of 10 to 35 depending on your DP which can be a bank or a broker. Capital Gain Tax: The capital gain tax is charged in accordance with the Short and Long-term capital gain tax. When the stock is sold within one year of buying the Capital gain tax is considered short-term and is charged at 15 of profit you make at the sale. When it is sold after one year of buying it is called Long-term capital gain and there is no tax on it. Hopefully the given information is substantial for you to gain a basic understanding of stock market in India.

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