Spanish Grammar Book

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Grammar Book :

Grammar Book By: Clara Weathers

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents 1----Nationalities 2----Stem Changing verbs 3----Para 4---- Adjectives 5--- - Object Pronoun Placement 6----Direct Object Pronouns 7---- Indirect Object Pronouns 8 ---- Ser vs. Estar 9---- ísimo ang g/c/z 10----Verbs Like Gustar 11---- Affirmative and Negative Words 12---- Pero vs. Sino 13----DOP/IOP/SE 14----Reflexive Verbs 15---- Tú Commands affirmative+ negative+ irregulars 16----Los Adverbios-mente 17---- Deber + other modal verbs 18---Past Participles as adjectives 19---- Perterite

Nationalities:

Nationalities m exicano– Mexico g uatemalteco– G uatemala hondureño – Honduras salvadoreño– El Salvador nicaragüense– Nicaragua c ostarricense – Costa Rica p anameño – Panama c ubano – Cuba d ominicano – Dominacan Republic p uertorriqueño – Puerto Rico v enezolano – Venezuala c olombiano – Columbia e cuatoriano – Ecuador p eruano – Peru p araguayo – Paraguay b oliviano– Bolivia c hileno – Chile a rgentino – Argentina u ruguayo -- Uraguay e spañol – Spain g uineano --Equatorial Guinea c anadiense – Canada e stadounidense – America n orteamericano – North America i taliano – Italy f rancés – France i nglés – English l atino hispano } H ispanic

Stem changing Verbs:

Stem changing Verbs Almorzar - (o- ue ) almuerzo almorzamos almuerzas almorzais almuerza almuerzan pienso pensamos piensas pensáis piensa piensan Pensar - (e- ie ) vivo vivimos vives vivís vive viven Vivir - ( i -e)

Para :

Para Meaning.. --- “for” or “in order to” Examples: -- Voy al mercado comprar un regalo para ( for ) mi mama. --Vive para ( in order to ) comer.

Adjectives:

Adjectives If adjective ends in an ‘e’ add ‘s’ If adjective ends in a constant add ‘ es ’ NOTE : if adjective is reffered to a nationality it must match BUT : las muchaches inglesas Los muchachos ingleses

Object Pronoun Placement :

Object Pronoun Placement There are three different ways to place object pronouns… Only one conjugated verb=object pronouns placed directly before the verb. Ex: Él te lo da When verb introduces an infinitive, object may be placed as in number 1, or attached to the end of the infinitive. ex: Él quiere dártelo . When the progressive is used, the object pronoun may be placed in front of the conjugated verb or attached to the gerund. Ex: El te lo esta dondo .

Direct Object Pronouns:

Direct Object Pronouns Describes who or what is receiving the action Examples: - Yolanda vende libros

Indirect object pronouns (IOPS):

Indirect object pronouns (IOPS) Describing to whom or for whom: Examples: Juan da una camisa a mi. * Juan me da una camisa . me nos te os le les

Ser and Estar:

Ser and Estar Ser : (to be) -Usage: For people and things To express possession To express origin Profession/occupation de+el del soy somos eres sois es son Estar : -Usage: With conditions and emotions (how you feel) Where nouns are located Estar+Adj How something looks How someone feels estoy estamos estas estais esta Estan

Ísimo and g/c/z:

Ísimo and g/c/z To express extremes with adjectives you must… Drop final vowel Add ísimo ending c-> qu g-> gu z->c

Verbs like Gustar:

Verbs like Gustar Some Spanish verbs use an IOP instead of the subject. Example: “Me Gusta ” is thought to mean Verbs like these make the object pleasing the subject, and the person being pleased the indirect object. “I Like” However, it really means “It pleases me.”

Affirmative and Negative Words:

Affirmative and Negative Words Algo - something Nada- nothing Alguien - someone Nadie - no one Algún / alguno - some Ningún - none, not any Siempre - always Nunca - never También - also Tampoco - neither, either

Pero vs. Sino:

Pero vs. Sino Pero : -You use ‘ pero ’ when you are joining to contrasting phrases -adding to the first phrase Example: Hace frío , pero tambíen hace sol. Sino: - used in negative sentences - used usually in the second sentence to correct the first Example: Hoy no voy a estudiar biología , sino matematíca .

DOP/IOP/SE:

DOP/IOP/SE When an IOP and DOP are both used in a sentence the IOP goes first… Indirect object pronouns ‘le’ ‘les’ are changed to ‘se’ when followed by ‘lo’ or ‘la’ Me Nos Te Os Le Les Me Nos Te Os Lo, La Los, Las IOP’s DOP’s

Reflexive Verbs:

Reflexive Verbs Used to describe people doing things for themselves Examples: - acostarse - to go to bed - afitarse - to shave - despertarse -to wake up - dormirse - to sleep - ducharse - to shower - lavarse - to wash oneslf

Tú Commands affirmative+negative+irregular:

Tú Commands affirmative+negative+irregular Affirmative commands: -put in third person form Negative commands: -put in first person form -add opposite vowel -add ‘s’ Irregular commands: causes a new form of the word di sal haz sé ve ten pon ven

Los Adverbios-Mente :

Los Adverbios-Mente When you add ‘ mente ’ to an adjective, it becomes an adverb… ( mente adds the ‘ ly ’) Examples: especial  especialmente special  specially When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the second one takes the ‘ mente ’ and the feminine form.

Deber + other Modal Verbs:

Deber + other Modal Verbs Deber - Modal Verbs- Are used as helping verbs ( deber + infinitive) means (you should do something) debo debemos debes debeís debe deben

Past Participles as Adjectives:

Past Participles as Adjectives Drop – ar ending and add –ado Drop – er or – ir ending and add – ido Examples: La puerta esta cerrada (the door is closed)

Preterite:

Preterite A definite time in the past Has a beginning and/or ending Las expressiones para el uso (trigger words) Search preterite – ar – er and – ir conjugations -é - amos - aste - aron -ó - aron - í - imos - iste - ieron - ió - ieron

Progressive Tense:

Progressive Tense - ar - ir (verb) - ir /- er Estar + - ando /- iendo /- yendo Example: -Leer  Leyendo Rules: -take off ending add ‘y’ -add correct ending