RESEARCH ETHICS-Alternative to Animal Uses In research

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Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing and Education A.K. CHHABRA Department of Plant Breeding CCSHAU, HISAR 125 004 @@#%$& *&^%@@##$#@$#@[email protected]@##$%^&*&&^%$# DISCLAIMER: Copyright of some of the figures used from internet and different web sites is duly acknowledged. The copyright stands with its original developer. The information has been gathered here for educational purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose.

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There are three kinds of research in the biomedical and behavioral sciences; testing of products for toxicity; and education of students at all levels, including the advanced life sciences, and medical and veterinary training. Three kinds of animal uses Each has different prospects for development of alternatives.

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Animal is defined as any non-human member of the five classes of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. animal welfare

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Animals and 3Rs Animal is defined as any non-human member of the five classes of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. For alternatives, OTA has chosen a definition characterized by the three Rs: replacement, reduction, and refinement.

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Scientists may replace methods that use animals with those that do not. For example, veterinary students may use a canine cardiopulmonary resuscitation simulator, resusci-Dog, instead of living dogs. Cell cultures may replace mice and rats that are fed new products to discover substances poisonous to humans. In addition, using the preceding definition of animal, an invertebrate (e.g., a horseshoe crab) could replace a vertebrate (e.g., a rabbit) in a testing protocol. REPLACEMENT

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REDUCTION

REFIND procedures : 

REFIND procedures Existing procedures may be refined so that animals are subjected to less pain and distress. Refinements include administration of anesthetics to animals undergoing otherwise painful procedures; administration of tranquilizers for distress; humane destruction prior to recovery from surgical anesthesia; and careful scrutiny of behavioral indices of pain or distress, followed by cessation of the procedure or the use of appropriate analgesics. Refinements also include the enhanced use of noninvasive imaging technologies that allow earlier detection of tumors, organ deterioration, or metabolic changes and the subsequent early euthanasia of test animals.

PAIN : 

PAIN Pain is defined as discomfort resulting from injury or disease, while distress results from pain, anxiety, or fear. Pain may also be psychosomatic (mental ), resulting from emotional distress. Pain is relieved with analgesics or anesthetics; distress is eased with tranquilizers.

PAIN : 

PAIN Widely accepted ethical standards require that Scientists subject animals to as little pain or distress as is necessary to accomplish the objectives of procedures. Professional ethics require scientists to provide relief to animals in pain or distress, unless administering relief would interfere with the objective of the procedure (e.g., when the objective is a better understanding of the mechanisms of pain).

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS FISH MONKEY MICE PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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Estimates of the animals used in the united states each year range from 10 million to upwards of 100 million. Kar chale hum fida jano tan saathio…………………..

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ENTERTAINMENT: PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ELECTRIC SHOCKS

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS PAINFUL, MERCILESS, CRUEL

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS CAN NOT MOVE EVEN WE ARE NOT TOYS TO PLAY OR DECORATE YOUR INTERIORS

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS FEEDING EXPERIMENT

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS CATS SPACE SUITS ARE THEY SATTLED ON MOON???

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS A BREATH IN THE OPEN AIR? What is my fault, sir @#$$>???

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS GRADUATE STUDENTS DISECTING A CAT

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS FROG ON DISECTING TABLE

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ANIMALS IN THE SPACE The first men and women who traveled in space — in the 1960s — depended on the sacrifices of other animals that gave their lives for the advancement of human knoweldge about the conditions in outer space beyond this planet's protective ozone layer, about the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, and about the effects of stress on behavior.

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ANIMALS IN SPACE Near the end of the 1950s, the U.S.S.R. was preparing to send a dog into orbit above Earth. The Soviets used nine so-called Space Dogs to test spacesuits in the unpressurized cabins of spaceflight capsules. For practice suborbital flights, the dogs Albina and Tsyganka were blasted upward to the edge of Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of 53 miles where they were ejected to ride safely down to Earth in their ejection seats. USSR DOGS

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Russian dogs Strelka and Belka went into space aboard Sputnik 5 and returned healthy [NASA Archive] TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS ANIMALS IN SPACE Korabl-Sputnik-2 (Spaceship Satellite-2), also known as Sputnik 5, was launched on August 19, 1960. On board were the dogs Belka ( Squirrel) and Strelka (Little Arrow). Also on board were 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants. After a day in orbit, the spacecraft's retrorocket was fired and the landing capsule and the dogs were safely recovered. They were the first living animals to survive orbital flight.

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS A FREE RIDE TO SPACE

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS FUR MAKING FROM ANIMALS

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TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS

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What is Freedom?? TRADITIONAL METHODS OF USING ANIMALS

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Some non animal methods are becoming available in biomedical and behavioral research. As more develop, animal use in research will likely become less common. It is important to note, however, that even if animals cannot be replaced in certain experiments, researchers can attempt to reduce the number used and also to minimize pain and distress.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Most alternatives to current animal use in research fall into one of four categories: Continued, but modified, use of animals: This includes alleviation of pain and distress, substitution of cold-blooded for warm-blooded vertebrates, coordination among investigators, and use of experimental designs that provide reliable information with fewer animals than were used previously.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Continued, but modified, use of animals: This includes alleviation of pain and distress, substitution of cold-blooded for warm-blooded vertebrates, coordination among investigators, and use of experimental designs that provide reliable information with fewer animals than were used previously.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Living Systems: These include microorganisms, invertebrates, and the in vitro culture of organs, tissues, and cells.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Nonliving Systems: These include epidemiologic databases and chemical and physical systems that mimic biological functions.

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Computer Programs: These simulate biological functions and interactions.

ADVANTAGES OF USING ALTERNATIVES : 

ADVANTAGES OF USING ALTERNATIVES Reduction in the number of animals used; Reduction in animal pain, distress, and experimental insult; Reduction in investigator-induced, artifactual physiological phenomena; savings in time, with the benefit of obtaining results more quickly; The ability to perform replicative protocols on a routine basis; Reduction in the cost of research; greater flexibility to alter conditions and variables of the experimental protocol; Reduction of error stemming from inter individual variability; and The intrinsic potential of in vitro techniques to study cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Anti-rabies vaccine likely to cost more : 

Anti-rabies vaccine likely to cost more Ambika Sharma Kasauli, November 4 The manufacture of the anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) at the Central Research Institute, credited with introducing the neural tissue technique in 1905, will soon stop. The institute has been directed to stop its manufacture by year-end by the Ministry of Health in the wake of an apex court ruling, forbidding the use of sheep brain for the manufacture of ARV. The technique, which was introduced by a British national, Sir David Semple, also the founder director of the institute, was still in use, though with a few modifications, revealed officials. The fact that the vaccine thus manufactured was known to cause side-effects like paralysis — which was one in 10,000 cases — its usefulness was being debated in the medical fraternity. The vaccine, however, was a viable option for those inflicted with rabies. Catering basically to the north Indian states of Punjab and Haryana, the institute manufactured about 60,000 ml of the vaccine per annum. The poor were the main beneficiaries of the vaccine which was readily available in government dispensaries and hospitals in the neighbouring states. The adoption of the new technique may not augur well for the poor strata of society, say officials. An ARV which was priced at Rs 340 for two vials now could go up by as much as Rs 1,500 with the tissue culture technique. With the tissue culture technique being adopted worldwide, the Ministry of Health had directed all institutes involved in the ARV manufacture to switch over to the new method. This, however, was not considered a financially viable option due to the high cost involved in its manufacture. Officials said infrastructure cost in the form of new machinery and training to the staff meant a huge investment for the institute. An intra-muscular technique of administering the ARV, in use elsewhere, incurred an expenditure of Rs 1,500 for five doses. Trials were under way by the Indian Council of Medical Research to adopt a new intra-dermal technique of administering the vaccine. Though more painful and requiring an expert to administer the dose, it was expected to bring down the cost. The medical fraternity across the nation was endeavouring to devise a cost-effective way to administer the vaccine manufactured through tissue culture.

DISADVANTAGES : 

DISADVANTAGES study organism growth processes; study cells, tissues, and organ systems acting in concert; study integrated biochemical and metabolic pathways; study behavior; study the recovery of damaged tissue; study interaction between the organism and its environment; study idiosyncratic or species-specific responses; distinguish between male-and female-specific phenomena; and A handicap to probing the unknown and phenomena not yet identified. Reduced ability to

Behavioral Research : 

Behavioral Research Behavior encompasses all the movements and sensations by which living things interact with both the living and nonliving components of their environment. Since one of the chief goals of behavioral research is an understanding of human behavior, there are obvious advantages to the use of human research subjects. It is the continued, but modified, use of animals that holds the most promise as an alternative in the field of behavioral research.

Advantages to use animals : 

Advantages to use animals Laboratory research on animals offers a greater opportunity to control variables such as genetic background, prior experience, and environmental conditions, all of which affect behavior and can obscure the influence of the factor under study. The short life spans of certain animals allow scientists to study behavior as it develops with age and across generations. Some animal behavior is less complex than human behavior, facilitating an understanding of basic elements and principles of behavior. The behavior of certain animals holds particular interest for humans. These animals include companion species, farm animals, and agricultural pests.

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Taught by our vets, the class covers pet first aid and health tips as well as "hands-on" CPR with the Resuscidog Veterinary school physiology and pharmacology courses have traditionally utilized live animals in student laboratories and demonstrations. As attitudes toward animal welfare change and as alternatives become available, veterinary students and faculty have begun to reevaluate this practice. Resuscidog

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ALTERNATIVES IN RESEARCH Modification in statistical analysis Recent Example is to calculate LD 50 USING MINIMAL ANIMALS (10 ONLY) instead of more than 100 used earlier

Draize eye irritancy test : 

Draize eye irritancy test Another often-criticized acute toxicity assay is the Draize eye irritancy test. This involves placing a test substance into one eye of four to six rabbits and evaluating its irritating effects. Results are used to develop precautionary information for situations in which exposure of the human eye to the substance is possible. Substances with certain properties e.g., a caustic pH-could be assumed to be eye irritants and not tested. Draize procedures may also be modified to reduce pain and in vitro methods to test for irritancy are underdevelopment.

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION : 

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION Replacements include computer simulations of physiological phenomena and pharmacologic reactions, cell culture studies, human and animal dead bodies , and audiovisual materials. Clinical observation and instruction can also replace the use of animals in some laboratory exercises in medical and veterinary schools.

Simulations at school level : 

Simulations at school level WATER CYCLE

College levelbiology classes : 

College levelbiology classes

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Barnase gene…produces RNAse Barnase gene…produces RNAse TA29 Barnase gene Tissue specific (tapetum layer) promoter Herbicide Resistance (Phosphinothricin) (Gene construct) Endothecium Middle layer Tapetum Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Tapetum degenerates PMCs/pollen become sterile BARNASE-BARSTAR SYSTEM TRANSGENIC GENETIC MALE STERILITY PRINCIPLE © A.K. Chhabra 2007

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Tapetum persistant PMCs/pollen are fertile Barnase gene…produces RNAse Barstar gene TA29 Barnase gene Tissue specific (tapetum layer) promoter Herbicide Resistance (Phosphinothricin) (Gene construct) Inhibits RNAse Endothecium Middle layer Tapetum Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BARNASE-BARSTAR SYSTEM TRANSGENIC GENETIC MALE STERILITY PRINCIPLE © A.K. Chhabra 2007

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Barnase gene…produces RNAse Barstar gene (fertility restorer) TA29 Barnase gene Tissue specific (tapetum layer) promoter Herbicide Resistance (Phosphinothricin) (Gene construct) Inhibits RNAse Endothecium Middle layer Tapetum Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Tapetum degenerates PMCs/pollen become sterile Tapetum persistant PMCs/pollen are fertile BARNASE-BARSTAR SYSTEM TRANSGENIC GENETIC MALE STERILITY PRINCIPLE Dominant male sterility Barstar-Barnase interaction (binding) © A.K. Chhabra 2007

CHEMICALLY INDUCED MALE STERILITY : 

CHEMICALLY INDUCED MALE STERILITY MALE STERILE MALE STERILE MALE STERILE MALE FERTILE

COMPUTER SIMULATIONS : 

COMPUTER SIMULATIONS Scientists are developing computer simulations computer simulations of cells, tissues, fluids, organs, and organ systems

Limitations on the utility of computer simulations : 

Limitations on the utility of computer simulations lack of knowledge of all the parameters involved in the feedback mechanisms that constitute a living system, which means the information on which the computer must depend is incomplete. In testing, computers allow toxicologists to develop mathematical models and algorithms that can predict the biological effects of new substances based on their chemical structure. If a new chemical has a structure similar to a known poison in certain key aspects, then the new substance also may be a poison. Such screening can thus preempt some animal use.

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION : 

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION Reduction techniques include the use of classroom demonstrations in place of individual students’ animal surgery and multiple use of each animal, although subjecting an animal to multiple recovery procedures may be viewed as inhumane and counter to refined use.

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION : 

ALTERNATIVES IN EDUCATION Refinements include the use of analgesics, euthanasia prior to recovery from surgery, observation of intact animals in the classroom or in their natural habitats, and the substitution of cold-blooded for warm-blooded vertebrates in laboratory exercises.

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"Affection" Genes CAN WE TAKE LESSON FROM ANIMALS………!!!!!!!

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MORAL / CONCLUSION z z z z Animals also need secure life and sound and a carefree sleep

Thanks for not disturbing us : 

Thanks for not disturbing us

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