Plantation Crops for Ethanol Production

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Plantation Crops: for Ethanol Production:

Plantation Crops : for Ethanol Production Second generation biofuels A.K. CHHABRA

ETHANOL IN INDIA - INFORMATION AND USEFUL LINKS Sat, 16 February 2013:

ETHANOL IN INDIA - INFORMATION AND USEFUL LINKS Sat, 16 February 2013 India imports nearly 70% of its annual crude petroleum requirement, which is approximately 110 million tons. The prices are in the range of US$ 50-70 per barrel, and the expenditure on crude purchase is in the range of Rs.1600 billion per year, impacting in a big way, the country's foreign exchange reserves. Crude Oil 96.08- 1.26%

ETHANOL IN INDIA - INFORMATION AND USEFUL LINKS Sat, 16 February 2013:

ETHANOL IN INDIA - INFORMATION AND USEFUL LINKS Sat, 16 February 2013 The petroleum industry now looks very committed to the use of ethanol as fuel, as it is expected to benefit sugarcane farmers as well as the oil industry in the long run. Ethanol (FUEL ETHANOL) can also be produced from wheat, corn, beet, sweet sorghum etc. Ethanol is one of the best tools to fight vehicular pollution, contains 35% oxygen that helps complete combustion of fuel and thus reduces harmful tailpipe emissions. It also reduces particulate emissions that pose a health hazard.

Mandatory Mixing Of 5% Ethanol in Petrol– A Step Should have being Taken Much Earlier.:

Mandatory Mixing Of 5% Ethanol in Petrol– A Step Should have being Taken Much Earlier. An early decision on 5% ethanol mandate should have helped the country save fuel cost a lot. The cabinet committee on economic affairs decided on 22nd November 2012 of mandatory mixing of 5% ethanol in petrol from December 2012. The Petroleum Ministry will issue a gazette notification shortly to implement the program in 2012-13 sugar season.

Corn is the main feedstock used for producing ethanol fuel in the United States.:

Corn is the main feedstock used for producing ethanol fuel in the United States. Combine-harvesting-corn

Maize-for Ethanol Production:

Maize-for Ethanol Production Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn that is used as a biomass ( Biomass is biological material from living, or recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials. As a renewable energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or indirectly—once or converted into another type of energy product such as biofuel. Biomass can be converted to energy in three ways: thermal conversion , chemical conversion , and biochemical conversion .)

Maize-for Ethanol Production:

Maize-for Ethanol Production Corn ethanol is produced by means of ethanol fermentation and distillation. (Alcoholic fermentation, also referred to as ethanol fermentation, is a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products. Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen, alcoholic fermentation is considered an anaerobic process. Alcoholic fermentation occurs in the production of alcoholic beverages and ethanol fuel, and in the rising of bread dough.)

An ethanol fuel plant in West Burlington, Iowa.:

An ethanol fuel plant in West Burlington, Iowa.

Ethanol Production process :

Ethanol Production process There are two main types of corn ethanol production: dry milling and wet milling. The products of each type are utilized in different ways. In the dry milling process the entire corn kernel is ground into flour and referred to as "meal." The meal is then slurred by adding water. Enzymes are added to the mash that convert starch to dextrose, a simple sugar. Ammonia is added to control the pH and as a nutrient for the yeast, which is added later. The mixture is processed at high-temperatures to reduce the bacteria levels and transferred and cooled in fermenters. This is where the yeast is added and conversion from sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide begins. The entire process takes between 40 to 50 hours, during which time the mash is kept cool and agitated in order to facilitate yeast activity. After the process is complete, everything is transferred to distillation columns where the ethanol is removed from the "stillage". The ethanol is dehydrated to about 200 proof using a molecular sieve system and a denaturant such as gasoline is added to render the product undrinkable. With this last addition, the process is complete and the product is ready to ship to gasoline retailers or terminals. The remaining stillage then undergoes a different process to produce a highly nutritious livestock feed. The carbon dioxide released from the process is also utilized to carbonate beverages and to aid in the manufacturing of dry ice.

Ethanol Production process:

Ethanol Production process The process of wet milling takes the corn grain and steeps it in a dilute combination of sulfuric acid and water for 24 to 48 hours in order to separate the grain into many components. The slurry mix then goes through a series of grinders to separate out the corn germ. Corn oil is a by-product of this process and is extracted and sold. The remaining components of fiber , gluten and starch are segregated out using screen, hydroclonic and centrifugal separators. The gluten protein is dried and filtered to make a corn gluten- meals co-product and is highly sought after by poultry broiler operators as a feed ingredient. The steeping liquor produced is concentrated and dried with the fiber and sold as corn gluten feed to in the livestock industry. The heavy steep water is also sold as a feed ingredient and is used as an environmentally friendly alternative to salt in the winter months. The corn starch and remaining water can then be processed one of three ways: 1) fermented into ethanol, through a similar process as dry milling, 2) dried and sold as modified corn starch, or 3) made into corn syrup. The production of corn ethanol uses water in two ways – irrigation and processing. There are two types of ethanol processing, wet milling and dry milling, and the central difference between the two processes is how they initially treat the grain. In wet milling, the corn grain is steeped in water, and then separated for processing in the first step. Dry milling, which is more common, requires a different process. According to a report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, "Over 80% of U.S. ethanol is produced from corn by the dry grind process." [ citation needed ] The dry grind process proceeds as follows: "Corn grain is milled, then slurried with water to create 'mash.' Enzymes are added to the mash and this mixture is then cooked to hydrolyze the starch into glucose sugars. Yeast ferment these sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide and the ethanol is purified through a combination of distillation and molecular sieve dehydration to create fuel ethanol. The byproduct of this process is known as distiller's dried grains and solubles (DDGS) and is used wet or dry as animal feed."

Distillation:

Distillation Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatility of components in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. Laboratory display of distillation: 1: A heating device 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate 14: Heating (Oil/sand) bath 15: Stirring means e.g.(shown), boiling chipsor mechanical stirrer 16: Cooling bath.

Feedstock for fuel production:

Feedstock for fuel production Yeast fermentation of various carbohydrate products is also used to produce the ethanol that is added to gasoline. The dominant ethanol feedstock in warmer regions is sugarcane . In temperate regions, corn or sugar beets . sorghum is also an important feedstock for ethanol production in the Plains states. Pearl millet is showing promise as an ethanol feedstock for the southeastern U.S. and the potential of duckweed is being studied.

Feedstock for fuel production:

Feedstock for fuel production In some parts of Europe, particularly France and Italy, grapes have become a de facto feedstock for fuel ethanol by the distillation of surplus wine. In Japan, it has been proposed to use rice normally made into sake as an ethanol source. Nigeria and Ghana are already establishing cassava -to-ethanol plants. In the United States, the main feedstock for the production of ethanol is currently corn. Approximately 2.8 gallons of ethanol are produced from one bushel of corn (0.42 liter per kilogram).

Cassava as ethanol feedstock:

Cassava as ethanol feedstock Ethanol can be made from mineral oil or from sugars or starches. Starches are cheapest. The starchy crop with highest energy content per acre is cassava, which grows in tropical countries. Thailand already had a large cassava industry in the 1990s, for use as cattle feed and as a cheap admixture to wheat flour. Nigeria and Ghana are already establishing cassava-to-ethanol plants. Production of ethanol from cassava is currently economically feasible when crude oil prices are above US$120 per barrel.

Cassava as ethanol feedstock:

Cassava as ethanol feedstock New varieties of cassava are being developed, so the future situation remains uncertain. Currently, cassava can yield between 25-40 tonnes per hectare (with irrigation and fertilizer), and from a tonne of cassava roots, circa 200 liters of ethanol can be produced (assuming cassava with 22% starch content). A liter of ethanol contains circa 21.46 MJ of energy. The overall energy efficiency of cassava-root to ethanol conversion is circa 32%. The yeast used for processing cassava is Endomycopsis fibuligera , sometimes used together with bacterium Zymomonas mobilis .

By-products of fermentation:

By-products of fermentation Ethanol fermentation produces unharvested by-products such as: heat, carbon dioxide, food for livestock, and water.

Microbes used in ethanol fermentation:

Microbes used in ethanol fermentation Zymomonas mobilis Yeast

Syngenta Gains Approval of Corn Modified for Ethanol Production :

Syngenta Gains Approval of Corn Modified for Ethanol Production 2011-the U.S. Department of Agriculture issued its decision to grant full deregulation of Syngenta’s genetically engineered corn expressing a thermostable alpha-amylase for use in ethanol processing. This decision means that the company can now sell this new maize variety, trade named Enogen TM , to growers in the U.S. beginning with the 2011 growing season. This decision is noteworthy for several reasons, mostly because it is the first U.S. regulatory approval for commercial use of a genetically engineered plant designed and dedicated for use as an improved biofuel feedstock.

Maize-for Ethanol Production:

Maize-for Ethanol Production Originally known by the internal product name “ Corn [Maize] event 3272 ”, this line was developed using recombinant DNA technology to introduce into corn the amy797E gene and the pmi marker gene. The amy797E gene is derived from alpha-amylase genes from three hyperthermophilic microorganisms of the archaeal order Thermococcales , and it encodes a thermostable AMY797E alpha-amylase enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of starch by cleaving the internal alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds into dextrins , maltose and glucose. The pmi gene from Escherichia coli encodes the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) enzyme, which allows the plant to utilize mannose as a carbon source.

Maize-for Ethanol Production IMPORTANCE :

Maize-for Ethanol Production IMPORTANCE By enabling expression of an optimized alpha-amylase enzyme directly in corn, dry grind ethanol production can be improved in a way that can be easily integrated into existing infrastructure.  “ Enogen corn seed offers growers an opportunity to cultivate a premium specialty crop. It is a breakthrough product that provides U.S. ethanol producers with a proven means to generate more gallons of ethanol from their existing facilities,” said Davor Pisk , Chief Operating Officer. “ Enogen corn also reduces the energy and water consumed in the production process while substantially reducing carbon emissions.”

Maize-for Ethanol Production :

Maize-for Ethanol Production This action has important implications for several reasons. As mentioned above, it is the first U.S. approval for commercial use of a genetically engineered plant variety specifically designed for biofuel production (although in May 2010 USDA did grant the biotechnology company Arborgen a significant permit for expanded field testing of transgenic Eucalyptus varieties as improved energy crops, but that permit was only for experimental field testing, not commercial use and sale).

Maize-for Ethanol Production :

Maize-for Ethanol Production We have studied the activity of a wheat histone H4 promoter in transgenic maize plants produced by direct DNA uptake into embryogenic cell suspension protoplasts . Expression patterns revealed by fluorimetric as well as histochemical GUS reporter enzyme assays and Northern hybridisation indicated the cell division-dependent expression of the GUS gene driven by the histone H4 promoter in proliferating cells and meristems . Changes in gene expression associated with the progression through the cell cycle in maize cell-suspension cultures were also investigated after partial synchronisation of cell division by aphidicolin or hydroxyurea . The transgene expression regulated by the wheat histone H4 promoter coincided with elevated levels of mRNAs from other S phase-associated genes such as maize histone H4 , histone H2B and proliferating cell nuclear antigen ( PCNA ) . The reporter gene expression was low during mitosis when accumulation of the transcripts of a B-type mitotic cyclin CycB1;zm;1 could be detected. The presented data indicate that the used 720-bp-long promoter region can provide replication-dependent expression for the GUS reporter gene in transgenic maize. In these maize plants, external hormone stimuli generated by a synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) or abscisic acid (ABA) have modified the histone H4 promoter-driven GUS gene transcription. These findings support the usefulness of the H4::GUS transgenic plants for further studies on cell cycle activation/inactivation by mitogenic or stress related stimuli in maize.

Maize-for Ethanol Production:

Maize-for Ethanol Production

Maize-for Ethanol Production:

Maize-for Ethanol Production

Maize-for Ethanol Production:

Maize-for Ethanol Production