An introduction to nanotechnology

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By: chandankmoorthy (102 month(s) ago)

This is to know the basic of nanotechnology and its applications. Give you are valuable comments on this.

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APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN VARIOUS FIELDS K.CHANDAN (Biotechnology) & A.T.RAMANAN (Biotechnology) By From ARUNAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE

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ABSTRACT The nanotechnology has its applications in various fields but some of the most important fields are Health, Environment, Energy, Nano BioTechnology , Information and communication How the Nanotechnology had been implemented in various fields had been explained in this paper

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WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY? Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, or nanoscale .

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HOW NANOTECHNOLOGY IS MEASURED ?

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NANOSCALE

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NANOTECHNOLOGY IN VARIOUS FIELDS

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HEALTH

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NANODRUGS

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Liposomes are currently investigated for a variety of additional therapeutic agents; anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, camptothecin, cisplatin; antibiotic such as amikacin, vancomysin, ciprofloxacin; biologics such as antisense oligonucleotides, DNA. LIPOSOMES

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PHARMACY ON A CHIP The drug released from the implanted microchip demonstrated similar measures of safety and therapeutic levels in blood to what is observed from standard, recommended multiple subcutaneous injections

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PROCESS OF DRUG DELIVERY

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The European Commission reports that ceramic nanocomposites developed in BIOKER could solve the problem of fracture failures in artificial joint implants. This would extend patient mobility and eliminate the high cost of reparative surgery . CERAMIC IN BONES

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POINT OF CARE TESTING- POCT POCT can augment the capabilities of disaster medical assistance teams, and provide minimally-invasive monitoring in critical and emergency care environments.

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ENERGY Sun is natural energy

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ENERGY SOURCE Nanotechnologies provide essential improvement potentials for the development of both conventional energy sources (fossil and nuclear fuels) and renewable energy sources like geothermal energy, sun, wind, water, tides or biomass

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E NERGY CONVERSION - fuel cell A fuel cell is an electrochemical devise that converts a fuel source into electricity

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ENERGY DISTRIBUTION Researchers at Rice University are working to develop wires containing carbon nanotubes that would have significantly lower resistance than the wires currently used in the electric transmission grid. The so-called  armchair quantum wire  would be composed of carbon nanotubes woven into a cable.

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ENERGY STORAGE - adding Li to H2 increase storage If we add small amounts of lithium to hydrogen and if we keep the pressure at about one-fourth of a pressure (on which hydrogen turns into a metal) hydrogen transforms into a metal with superconductivity properties .

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NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY

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NANOBOTS Nanobots swims in blood it is provided with microcamera,capacitor,payload and swimming tail. It reaches the targeted area and finds the unwanted growth or any tumor cell and ruputes the particular diseased area.

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GENE THERAPY – Viral vector Viral vectors  are a tool commonly used by molecular  biologists to deliver  genetic material into   cells  

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GENETHERAPY – by non viral vector Synthetic or non-viral gene delivery vectors typically consist  of DNA (usually plasmid DNA produced in bacteria) or RNA which may be delivered to the target cell usdelivery vehicleually with the aid of a

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GENE DELIVERY – by direct injection In the direct injection method a blood sample is taken from patient , cell isolation and expansion is done it is placed on matrix.As a result new tissue is created and it is implanted into the patients body.

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Schematic representation of the observed antimicrobial and platelet-activating effects. Panel A: 1 . Concentrations of Ag +  ions built up by elution from the silver nanoparticle coating were high enough to kill bacteria. 2 and 3 : Possible killing of bacteria by contact-dependent transfer of Ag +  ions followingcollision with the silver nanoparticle- containing surface. Panel B: 1. Ag +  ions from the silver nanoparticle coating did not result in Ag + concentrations high enough to activate blood platelets. 2 and 3 . Activation of blood platelets by contact-dependent transfer of Ag +  ions following collision with the silver nanoparticle- containing surface. ANTIMICROBIA L ACTIVITY

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ENVIRONMENT

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Polymers like thermosets, thermoplastics and elastomers reinforced with colloidal silica, nanoclay and nanotubes are promising candidate materials. Employing nano composites can lead to reduced energy consumption in cars, with the impact of their use being likely to be even more dramatic in the a erospace sector. Hence the global warming can be reduced. GLOBALWARMING

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PERCENTAGE OF GLOBALWARMING CAUSED BY VARIOUS SECTOR

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Nanoparticles is used to clean industrial water pollutants in ground water through chemical reactions that render them harmless, at much lower cost than methods that require pumping the water out of the ground for treatment. Researchers have developed a nanofabric "paper towel," woven from tiny wires of potassium manganese oxide, that can absorb 20 times its weight in oil for cleanup applications. Nanorust cleans arsenic from drinking water POLLUTION - water

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CLEANING UP ORGANIC POLLUTING GROUND WATER Iron nanoparticles can be effective in  cleaning up organic solvents  that are polluting groundwater. The iron nanoparticles disperse throughout the body of water and decompose the organic solvent in place. This method can be more effective and cost significantly less than treatment methods that require the water to be pumped out of the ground.

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FOOD AND AGRICULTURE Food Contaminant detection In 2008, thousands of people, especially children, got sick as a result of melamine contamination in dairy products from China. A quick and easy way to detect melamine in milk using gold nanoparticles . In the presence of melamine, the mixture changes from pink to blue. [1, 2]

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Use of new biopesticides , sensor to monitor soil condition and agrichemical delivery the agriculture productivity can be increased AGRICULTURE

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION Memory storage: Memory storage before the advent of nanotechnology relied on transistors, but now reconfigurable arrays are formed for storing large amount of data in small space. For example, we can expect to see the introduction of magnetic RAMs and resonant tunnel elements in logical circuits in the near future. Every single nanobit of a memory storage device is used for storing information. Molecular electronics based on carbon nanotubes or organic macromolecules will be used.

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Nano amplification and chip embedding is used for building semiconductor devices which can even maintain and neutralize the electric flow. SEMICONDUCTORS

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CONCLUSION Thus Nanotechnology has a great impact in various field. Being an engineer and technologist we have to find new ways to imply nanotechnology in various fields

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THANK YOU Any Queries?