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GREEN BUILDINGS Submitted by:- Abhishek chack

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WHAT IS GREEN BUILDING:- Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction.

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Why should I be aware of this? Buildings have a major impact on the environment over their entire life cycle. Responsible for 40% of worldwide energy flow and material use, conventional buildings have been identified as the largest source of green-house gas emissions, even more than that of the transport and industry sector. They affect urban air quality and contribute to climate change. They are also hazardous to health at times. During their life cycle, conventional buildings harm the environment in many ways.

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Resources such as ground cover, forests, water, and energy are depleted to give way to buildings. Indiscriminate use of building material without giving a thought to the environment. Most of the building material is sourced from great distances adding to their carbon commute. Building design and landscaping is such that the building uses water and its landscape need pesticide during its lifetime. These buildings have energy-consuming systems for lighting, space conditioning, water heating and hi-tech controls to add to the comfort and convenience of the occupants. No system for recycling [water] and [waste management]. Poor indoor air-quality.

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Reducing environmental impact Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of new buildings. Buildings account for a large amount of land use, energy and water consumption, and air and atmosphere alteration. Considering the statistics, reducing the amount of natural resources buildings consume and the amount of pollution given off is seen as crucial for future sustainability, according to EPA. The building sector alone accounts for 30-40 percent of global energy use. Over 80 percent of the environmentally harmful emissions from buildings are due to energy consumption during the times when the buildings are in use

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How does this affect me? Tangible benefits A Green Building consumes 30-40% less water and 40-50% less energy as compared to a conventional building. It enhanced productivity of occupants by 10-15%. Intangible Benefits Green image Health and safety of occupants Enhanced occupant comfort Imbibe best operational practices from day one People shy from going for a green building as the cost of construction is higher than that of a conventional building. But what they do not know is that the incremental cost of constructing a green building gets paid back in 3-5 years.

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Green Building design Criteria :- 1.Site Management: Make efficient use of solar exposure. A building’s materials can reflect, transmit or absorb solar radiation making it important to choose design elements and materials that utilize solar energy in the most efficient way Reduce heat gain through roof exposure while reducing the energy load on cooling systems. Make use of renewable energies to reduce both utility costs and environmental impacts of energy production. In low traffic areas use porous paved surfaces to assist on-site stormwater infiltration and reduce erosion.

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Develop in pedestrian friendly locations that promote healthy life styles and alternate modes of transportation. (Urban areas) 2. Water Conservation: Landscaping plan using drought-tolerant species, native plants, minimal lawn cover to conserve water and reduce the need for fertilizers and pesticides. Reduce utility costs and the strain on the fresh water supply by installing low-flow fixtures and water conserving appliances. New Construction- install fixtures or appliances with the minimum specifications; 1.6 gallons-per-flush toilets, 2.o gallons-per-minute showerheads, 1.5 gallons-perminute kitchen faucets, .5 gallons-per-minute bathroom faucets, front-loading washing machines.

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3. Energy Efficiency: By conserving energy tenants save money and enjoy increased comfort. 3-a. Install Energy Star lighting systems and appliances. 3-b. Insulate all water lines hot and cold. 3-c. Install properly sized hot water heaters to ensure efficiency. 3-d. Install energy performance windows and doors that exceed 2003 IECC standards. 3-e. Make use of natural light, daylighting interior areas reduce the need for electrical lighting.

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4. Healthy Living: Provide living spaces that enhance resident health by eliminating toxic materials and increasing the quality of air. 4-a. Proper ventilation by means of operable windows and a properly sized HVAC system providing fifteen cubic feet per minute of fresh air per occupant. 4-b. Seal air duct joints with duct mastic and fiberglass mesh to provide proper air pressure and high efficiency. 4-c. All bathroom exhaust fans, range hoods (on all stoves), and dryer vents must vent directly to the outdoors in order to control moisture and other air contaminants.

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4-d. If carpet is used it must not be installed in high moisture areas including; entryways, bathrooms, kitchens, and laundry areas. Installation of carpet must be tacked down, cannot be glued. 4-e. Install hard surfaced flooring in order to avoid the collection of dust and other allergens that occur in carpet, which lead to health risks of residents. 4-f. Use certified Low-VOC (volatile organic compounds) materials such as paints, primers, sealants, and adhesives. Green Seal is an excellent resource. 4-g. Use composite wood only if free of urea formaldehyde

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5. Building Plan and Materials: The efficient use and reuse of materials along with a site construction plan reduces the environmental impact of building while also reducing the costs incurred. 5-a. Develop and implement a construction waste management plan. 5-b. Provide and implement an erosion and sedimentation control plan to keep the loss of topsoil and infiltration of sedimentation into the storm water system to a minimum. 5-c. Use locally or regionally produced materials which boost the local economy and reduce transportation costs and environmental strain. 5-d. Use salvaged, certified, or engineered wood to promote environmental consciousness and responsibility. 5-e. Utilize salvaged materials.

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The Five Elements of LEED® Green Building :- LEED® has five key elements they look at before certifying a building as up-to-standard, as a way to ensure that the above benefits (and others) continue.  Each element has in depth standards and codes, but here is a brief outline of each:1.  Sustainable Sites – The chosen site and design should incorporate a control plan for sediment and erosion.  In addition, if it’s a new building you might consider which way you build it in relation to sunlight, wind, etc. 2.  Water Efficiency – This category deals with water use reduction and wastewater technologies, such as using rainwater for irrigation or high efficiency plumbing fixtures.

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3.  Energy and Atmosphere – Energy efficiency, ozone protection and renewable energy all fall under this category.  A good example of this is a 10% reduction in energy usage for a new building.4.  Materials and Resources – This category deals with waste reduction in regards to reused materials and recycling.  Using recycled construction materials is a good example, and one of the prerequisites is that the building has a storage area to hold the occupants’ recyclable materials. 5.  Indoor Environmental Quality – The main aim of this category is reducing indoor pollutants and improving comfort and quality of the air and temperature.  As a prerequisite, the design has to meet specific ANSI/ASHRAE standards.

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Energy eficiency could contribute 57% of the total, renewables 43%.48 For the building sector alone, the potential reduction is 200 million metric tons per year, about onesixth of the total reductions needed in carbon dioxide emissions. That’s how important building energy conservation technologies, designs and techniques are to our future. Energy Conservation What are some of the most important energy conservation measures that should be designed into our commercial and residential buildings? • Better insulation of buildings and homes, including door, window and ceiling insulation.

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• Plugging the leaks, especially in homes, so that heated or cooled air doesn’t escape before it’s used. • Better glazing, including double-pane, “low-e” coated glass for all buildings. • More e‹cient air-conditioning systems, with higher SEER (Seasonal Energy E‹ciency Ratio) ratings, along with radiant cooling systems.

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• Waste-heat recovery systems from exhaust air. • Natural ventilation and operable windows to allow nature to provide heating and cooling. • Improved lighting technologies and greater use of daylighting and LEDs. • Higher-e‹ciency boilers and radiant heating systems, including tankless water heaters. • Better methods to control moisture in buildings, to allow comfort with less cooling energy. • Reducing losses of conditioned airwith better duct sealing techniques. • Ground-coupled heat pumps (geothermal heating systems) that reduce whole-building energy consumption by 30%.

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• Rightsizing (downsizing) of HVAC systems so that they operate more efciently. • High-efciency condensing boilers for water heating and tankless water heaters that supply hot water at point of use, only on demand, reducing losses through gas šues. • Distributed energy systems that allow for far greater total energy-use esciencies. • Changes in building codes to require more stringent minimum energy-esciency levels. • Reducing the required size of building ventilation fans through a variety of techniques.

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• Premium-esciency motors with variable-speed drives to better match input energy with loads. • Water conservation measures to reduce energy use for water heating. • Carbon dioxide sensors to control ventilation levels based on occupancy avoid wasting energy. • Occupancy sensors to turn oª lights and HVAC systems when spaces are not in use.

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Two mechanisms are currently available to commercial architects, designers, and builders in the U.S. attempting to identify their products and services as “high performing” on environmental and energy dimensions. The LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System® is a voluntary rating system introduced in 2000 for developing highperformance, sustainable buildings. Developed and maintained by the U.S. Green Building Council, the certification process assigns points along six assessment areas (Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy & Atmosphere, Materials & Resources, Indoor Environmental Air Quality and Innovation). Leed rating system

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Green GlobesTM, a web-based green building performance tool from Canada, has recently been introduced to the U.S. market as an alternative to the LEED® Rating System. Green Globes is distributed by the Green Building Initiative in the US. It generates numerical assessment scores corresponding to a checklist with a total of 1,000 points listed in seven assessment categories (Project Management; Site; Energy; Water; Resources; Emissions, Effluents & Other Impacts; Indoor Environment). These scores can be used as self-assessments internally, or they can be verified by third-party certifiers.

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Greening of 5 Congress Street The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system rates buildings in six categories and each category has required prerequisites that receive no points, and a number of subcategories that have assigned points. At over 50% construction, here are some of the green features that we have secured points for in the six categories. Additional points will be added as the documentation for the points is gathered and construction continues. Some points are not being pursued based on the existing conditions (e.g., erosion control that would be at a site where excavation is required). At over 50% construction we have 37 secure points (Silver LEED). We expect to acquire a total of 42 points and achieve a Gold LEED building rating.

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Sustainable Site Selection Density - development in a high density area (709,485 sq ft/acre) and a landmark preservation project. Brownfield's Redevelopment - abatement of asbestos and lead paint. Alternative Transportation - the building is in close proximity to public transit and there is bike storage for over 15% of the building users as well as showers.

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Water Efficiency Landscaping - native plants on the green roof installation and 5,500 gallons of rain water will be captured if the green roof plantings require irrigation. Water use - reduction of 32% over code, 1.5 gallon/ flush toilets, 2.5 gallon/minute showers and sinks. Energy and Atmosphere Energy Performance - designed to meet ENERGY STAR and energy cost savings will be 20% better than required. Low-e spectrally selective and historically appropriate windows, R-11 insulation, variable speed fans/pumps, occupancy sensors in offices and day lighting sensors near the windows. Green Power - will be purchased to offset the electricity consumption at the building.

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Materials and Resources Recycling - five materials from the office space will be recycled: plastics, metals, paper, cardboard and glass. Collection areas in the lounge on each floor and storage in the basement. Food waste collection in the cafeteria. Construction waste - over 75% is being diverted from disposal and being recycled. Indoor Air Quality Environmental Tobacco Smoke - there will be a no smoking policy in the building, on the green roof and within 25 feet of the entrances. Daylighting - over 70% of the occupants will have daylight. Low-emitting materials - including paint, carpeting and composite wood are specified for the building. Sources of contaminants - such as copy rooms and janitors’ closets will be exhausted directly to the exterior.

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