Spanish Grammar Book

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Spanish Grammar Book:

Cameron (César) Deweese Spanish Grammar Book

Table OF Contents :

Table OF Contents Nationalities Stem Changing Verbs Adjectives Para Object Pronoun Placement D.O.P (direct object pronouns) I.O.P (indirect object pronouns) Verbs Like Gustar Ser vs. Estar C.G.Z (ísimo) Affirmative+ Negative Words Pero vs. Sino D.O.P/I.O.P/SE Reflexive Verbs Tú Commands Los Advirbos- mente Deber+ other modal verbs Past principles as adjectives Preterite Present Progressives Citations

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Ex Mexicano , Franco Boliviano, Salvadoreño Argentino , Peruano Puertoriceño , Panamañp Costarricense , Venezolano Nicagüense , Españolo Cubano , Paraguayo Guatemalteco , Guineano Estadounidense , Chileno Hondurenño , Dominicano Italiano , Ecuatoriana Colombiano , Inglés Uruguayos , Chilenos NATIONALITIES

Stem Changing Verbs:

Stem Changing Verbs Dormir O=>UE Pensar E=>I Duermo Dormimos Peinso Pensamos Duermas Piensas Duerma Duerman Piensa Piensan Entender E=>IE Jugar U=>UE Entiendo Entendimos Juego Jugamos Entiendas Juegas Entienda Entiendan Juega Juegan

Adjectives:

Adjectives Often used to describe a noun or distinguish the noun from a group of similar objectives. They often change form depending on weather or not the noun it modifies is singular or plural, masculine or feminine, ect. Ex: el chico alto

Para:

Para To mean "in order to" Ex: Viajamos para aprendar español To indicate intent usefullness or need Estudia para dentist To inidcate destination Salimos para London

Object Pronoun Placement:

Object Pronoun Placement In an affirmative sentence,The D.O.P/I.O.P comes before the verb Ex: Yo te veo (i see you) In infinitives or Present participles you can either attach the D.O.P/I.O.P to the end of the verb or before the verb Ex: Voy a hacer la . / La voy a hacerla.

D.O.P (Direct object Pronouns):

D.O.P (Direct object Pronouns) Me Nos Te Os Lo, La Los, Las Pronouns used to take the replace the name of the direct oject:

I.O.P (Indirect Object Pronouns):

I.O.P (Indirect Object Pronouns) Singular me (me) te (you) [familiar] le (you) [formal], [him, her] Plural nos (us) os (you) [familiar] les (you, them)

VERBS LIKE GUSTAR:

VERBS LIKE GUSTAR me gusta... nos gusta... te gusta... os gusta... le gusta... les gusta... Singular me gusta la idea nos gusta la idea te gusta la idea os gusta la idea le gusta la idea les gusta la idea Plural me gustan las personas nos gustan las personas te gustan las personas os gustan las personas le gustan las personas les gustan las personas

Ser vs. Estar:

Ser vs. Estar Estar Ser Uses: people and things used with preposition de expreses profession Both mean "to be" Uses: geographic or physical locations used with adjectives to express state or condition Many idiomatic expressions Progressive tenses Progressive tenses

C.G.Z (ísimo):

C.G.Z (ísimo) c => qu rico(a) =>riquísimo(a) g => gu largo(a) => larguísimo(a) z => c feliz => felicísimo

Affirmative + Negative Words:

Affirmative + Negative Words Affirmative Algo-something Alguin-someone Algún/alguno-some Siempre-Always También- also Negative Nada-nothing Nadie-no one ningno/ -none, not any nunca-never Tampoco-neither, either

Pero Vs. Sino:

Pero Vs. Sino Pero Used to join two contrasting ideas when the second phrase does not negate the first. It is somewhat like adding detail. Ex: No soy española, pero hablo bien el idioma Sino Generally used in a negative sentence in which the second phrase neglects or corrects the first. Sort of like "but rather" or "but on the contrary" Hoy no voy a estudiar hisotria, sino matemáticas.

DOP/ IOP/ SE:

DOP/ IOP/ SE IOP me te le nos os les DOP me te lo, la nos os las,los Se me les se nos os se

Reflexive verbs :

Reflexive verbs reflexives- reflexes the action of the verb back to the subject Yo me llavo Tú te llavas Usted se llava El/Ella Nosotros nos lavamos Vosotros os leváis Ustedes/ Ellos/Ellas se leven Reflexive Pronouns me nos te os se se

Tú Commands:

Tú Commands Irregular Affirmatives di sal haz sé ve ten pon ven Irregular Negatives des estés vayas seas Regular Affirmative + habla + come Regular Negatives -no hables -no comas For negative commands: change to you form, turn "er" and "ir" to "ar" and "ar" to "er", lastly add an "s" to the end For affirmative commands: drop the "s"

Los Abverbios- mente:

Los Abverbios- mente When 2 adverbs modify the same verb only the second one uses the -mente ending. The adverb is the same as the feminine singular form of the adjective. Juan trabaja lenta y cuidadosamente/ Juan works slowly and carefully Add -mente to feminine singular cuidadoso (a)-> cuidados a mente tranquilo (a)-> tranquil a mente

Modal Verb:

Modal Verb ir + a + infinitive (going to do something) poder + infinitive (are able to do something) querer + infinitive (want to do something) deber + infinitive (should do something) tener que + infinitive (to have to do something) solar + infinitive (to be accustomed to...)

Past Participles as Adjectives:

Past Participles as Adjectives *Drop -ar ending and add -ado Drop er- ending and add -ido Examples L a puerta está cerrada- The door is closed El resturante está abierto- The resturant is open El Pretérito Time in the past Has a beginning and/ or ending las expressiones para el uso (trigger words) Ayer, Ancohe, El año pasado, La semana, pasada, Ante ayre r

preterite:

preterite Ar: é- hable amos-hablamos aste- hablaste ó- habló hablaron Er/Ir í- comí, escribí imos-comimos, escribimos iste-comiste, escribiste ió- comió, escribió ieron- comieron, escribieron Note: -car ending preterite verbs in the yo form will change to -que in order to keep the hard 'c' sound: ex: Yo sa qué (sacar) la basura ayer

Present Progressive:

Present Progressive Present Progressive estoy esper ando estás esper ando está esper ando estamos esper ando están esper ando Irregular Present Participle le er - le yendo o ir - o yendo tra er - tra yendo Irregular Present Particple p e dir- pid iendo s e rvir- sirv iendo Irregular Present Participle d e cir- d i c iendo d o rmir- d u rm iendo v e nir- v i n iendo

Citations:

Citations http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/porpara.htm http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/serest1.htm http://studyspanish.com/lessons/adj1.htm