Coffee Versus Tea

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Mrs. Hyde Group

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Method Discussion Coffee Versus Tea Chelsea Crow, Andrea Manella, Kendall Ponce Azusa Pacific University Chart #1 References Literature Review Results Participants: Graduate students from Azusa Pacific University’s Orange County campus were recruited for this study. 16 total recruits participated. Age, race, and gender were not considered. As the online survey came to a close on Survey- Monkey, 16 graduate students had successfully completed the research study. Fortunately all 16 participants answered all 8 quantitative questions and 2 qualitative questions allowing for consistent analysis of the data. “When given a choice, graduate students prefer drinking coffee over tea.” This was our stated hypothesis when we started this research experiment. Bryan, J., Tuckey, M., Einöther, S. L., Garczarek, U., Garrick, A., & De Bruin, E. A. (2012). Relationships between tea and other beverage consumption to work performance and mood. Appetite , 58 (1), 339-346. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.11.009 Coffee or Tea ? That was the question that came to mind as we conceptualized our research study. Interacting with other graduate students as we went about our day, we noticed some drink coffee only, and some just drink tea. This observation raised the question: Which drink of the two do graduate students prefer and why? Chart #2

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Literature Review Coffee or Tea ? That was the question that came to mind as we conceptualized our research study. Interacting with other graduate students as we went about our day, we noticed some drink coffee only, and some just drink tea. This observation raised the question: Which drink of the two do graduate students prefer and why?

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Literature Review Coffee and tea are consumed all around the world, with tea being drunk more worldwide than coffee, and coffee consumption being higher in the West (Quinlan et al., 2000). Even though tea is the most common drink in the world, coffee is the most researched of the two due to the more salient effects of its caffeine (Quinlan, Lane, & Aspinall, 1997). Coffee is most commonly drunk for its caffeine to ward off fatigue and to increase alertness and performance, while tea is usually drunk for its relaxation properties. Not only does coffee and tea cause these effects, but there is also an expectation for these effects which is believed to enhance the experience (Dawkins, Shahzad, Ahmed, & Edmonds, 2011).

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Literature Review Both drinks have various degrees of caffeine, with most teas having equal amounts of caffeine as coffee. However, it is commonly believed that coffee has more caffeine (Rogers, Smith, Heatherley, & Pleydell-Pearce, 2008). Caffeine is different across the doses, with lesser amounts proving to be helpful for the individual, while larger doses can have a negative impact on the individual. Small doses can increase alertness, improve performance, increase concentration, and enhance mood. Large doses can create anxiety, impair one’s concentration, and lead to shaking hands (Matranga, 2008).

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Literature Review When is the next cup of coffee too much? Drinking too much coffee has been reported to affect moods, interrupt mindfulness, and disrupt sleep at night (Bryan et al., 2012). There is also the question of whether too much coffee can have lasting effects. Researchers discovered that at least one symptom of caffeine intoxication was seen in 83 percent of freshmen college students (McIlvain, Noland, & Bickel, 2011). This may be further seen when looking at students’ studying habits, gender, age, and personality traits such as introvert and extrovert (Landrum, 1992).

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Literature Review While contemplating this research, the question of the “right” amount of caffeine to gain increased alertness and improved ability arises. A positive effect from caffeine can be expected in the range of 200 to 250 mg, with a negative effect from 400 to 500 mg (Quinlan et al., 2000). The body absorbs one cup of coffee within 45 minutes, and the caffeine reaches the peak concentration anywhere from 15 to 120 minutes, with a half-life of about 1.5 to 9.5 hours (Mets, Baas, van Boven, Olivier, & Verster, 2012).

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Literature Review Both drinks also have other properties that affect the body. Chlorogenic acids, kahweol, and cafestol across decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee, affect the behaviors and mood of the individual (Cropley et al., 2012). They may also produce health effects such as being a chemo preventative (Geybels, Neuhouser, Wright, Stott-Miller, & Stanford, 2013). Tea possesses theanine, an amino acid, which is connected to relaxation (Rogers, Smith, Heatherley, & Pleydell-Pearce, 2008). Both coffee and tea also share a neuroprotective effect on the brain, which can possibly assist in delayed onset of dementia with the help of polyphenols and caffeine (Noguchi-Shinohara et al., 2014).

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Method Participants  -  Graduate students from Azusa Pacific University’s Orange County campus were recruited for this study. All recruits were in the Master of Arts Clinical Psychology program. 16 total recruits participated. Age, race, and gender were not considered. Materials  - A 10 question survey was designed on SurveyMonkey , and distributed through email. Eight questions were quantitative, along with two qualitative questions. The questions were designed to measure whether graduate students prefer coffee to tea or vice versa. The quantitative questions were scaled using a 5-point likert scale (1.Strongly Disagree 2.Disagree 3.Neither Agree or Disagree 4.Agree 5.Strongly Agree). The remaining qualitative questions were posed in an open-ended question format.

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Method Procedure  - Survey questions were submitted to Azusa Pacific University’s Office of Institutional Research and Assessment (OIRA), and received an approval code with readiness of distribution between March 6 and March 21, 2015. Participants were approached in person and asked if they would be willing to participate in the stated research study. Those who agreed were sent an email complete with the OIRA stamp of approval, a written statement of informed consent, a brief description of the survey, and a link to complete the online survey via SurveyMonkey. Participants were asked to complete the survey no later than March 21, 2015.

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Results As the online survey came to a close on SurveyMonkey, 16 graduate students had successfully completed the research study. Fortunately all 16 participants answered all 8 quantitative questions and 2 qualitative questions allowing for consistent analysis of the data. A table of quantitative results is included in this presentation to provide the mean and standard deviation for each question.

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Table of Quantitative Results

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Results To jump right into the results, our research was intended to reveal if these graduate students preferred coffee over tea. As visually portrayed in Chart #1, when given the option, 50.00% of the students agreed they would choose coffee over tea and 37.50% strongly agreed. This response provides strong evidence of their preference, which is further supported with only one participant disagreeing and one strongly disagreeing that they would choose coffee over tea. The weighted average was 4.06, which is a rather direct agreement with the statement.

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Students Prefer Coffee Over Tea Chart #1

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Results To evaluate if the students even consume coffee and/or tea, they were asked if they drink them at least once per week. With regards to coffee, as Chart #2 indicates, 12.50% agreed and 68.75% strongly agreed that they consume it at least once per week, and only 18.75% strongly disagreed. With a mean of 4.13, the data illustrates that 13 out of 16 respondents do drink coffee at least once per week, explicitly showing it is commonly consumed.

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Coffee and Tea Weekly Consumption Chart #2 Chart #3

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Results With regards to tea, as chart #3 indicates, the responses were much more evenly dispersed when using the Likert scale. Fifty-percent of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they do consume tea at least once per week, however 37.00% disagreed or strongly disagreed and 12.50% neither disagreed nor agreed. This variance shows that many more students consume coffee at least once a week over consuming tea at least once a week.

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Results Other quantitative data was collected to capture certain behaviors and benefits of consuming coffee and tea. The taste of coffee is an exceptionally validated reason why it is consumed with 93.75% of the participants agreeing or strongly agreeing with this factor. Another benefit considered when consuming coffee is that it can ward of sleepiness during the day, which 68.75% of participants either agreed or strongly agreed with. Only five of the participants were impartial, or disagreed or strongly disagreed with consuming coffee for the benefit of warding off sleepiness. Coffee is also often consumed socially as indicated by 81.25% of the participants agreeing or strongly agreeing. Graduate students will often go out of their way to get the coffee they want, as 68.75% agreed or strongly agreed. The data suggests that 31.25% of the students are impartial or will not go out of their way to get a certain coffee.

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Results A benefit of tea which the study tried to capture was its relaxation effects. The data had a weighted average of 3.69 with 62.50% agreeing or strongly agreeing and 37.50% disagreeing or being impartial. This indicates that more students feel calm after drinking tea than not.

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Results To enhance our understanding of the frequency and motivation of the participants’ coffee and tea consumption, two qualitative questions were proposed. The first question asked, “How often do you drink coffee and how often do you drink tea?” To capture this data, a table has been included to show the frequency of consumption among the study participants. The results show that 13 students consume coffee at least once per week, and eight of these respondents indicate they drink coffee one or more times a day. For tea on the other hand, only 10 students indicated that they consume tea at least once per week, and only three professed to drink tea at least once a day.

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Table of Consumption

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Results In simpler terms, eight students stated they drink coffee daily and three students stated they drink tea daily. It is interesting to note that only one participant reported that they do not drink coffee, however, no participant indicated that they do not drink tea. This collection of information from the qualitative research specifically shows that graduate students choose to drink coffee more often than tea.

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Results The second qualitative question that was proposed to the students was, “Why do you drink coffee/tea?” In both cases we heard “I love coffee” and “I love tea”. In taking a closer look, some themes emerged upon reviewing the responses. The participants’ expressed an appreciation for the flavors of coffee and tea, and some preferred one over the other. Both drinks have been attributed to helping them wake up in the morning and staying awake throughout the day. Some stated that coffee has become a tradition and routine and associate it with breakfast, whereas others state tea helps them prepare for bed and signals the body to sleep. Coffee was given credit for helping them focus and giving them energy, and it was said that tea is chosen when it’s cold outside and when they want to relax.

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Results The largest comparison was related to caffeine. It is perceived at times that tea is not as strong as coffee, and when some students do not want caffeine or are seeking more decaffeinated options, they will choose to drink tea. Some students avoid drinking coffee as they say it can keep them from falling asleep at night, whereas other students crave that punch of caffeine and believe coffee is stronger than tea therefore choosing to drink it. There also seems to be a theme that tea is healthier than coffee, and that it has benefits such as avoiding feeling bloated after a meal and increasing the metabolic rate, yet one student responded that coffee is an antidepressant. Both drinks also have a perceived payoff as coffee can feel like a splurge and good self-care, and tea feels more like a special treat. It is important to note that coffee was believed to be a huge part of our culture, and that Starbucks is loved for its variety of coffee drinks.

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Discussion “When given a choice, graduate students prefer drinking coffee over tea.” This was our stated hypothesis when we started this research experiment. After carefully developing the survey, selecting key participants and analyzing the data collected from the completed online questionnaire, the results prove the hypothesis to be true. Of the 16 participants in the study, 87.50% of them agreed or strongly agreed that if given the choice between coffee over tea, they would choose coffee. This statistic alone directly supports our initial prediction. However, the qualitative measure of frequency of consumption shows that tea is also a popular drink choice among the graduate students. Of the respondents, eight stated they drink coffee at least once a day, and three stated they drink tea at least once a day. This variance does lend support to our hypothesis, but it also proves tea to be a strong contender.

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Discussion With regards to the reasons for consuming coffee, the taste received the highest endorsement, and almost 70% endorsed drinking coffee as a means of warding off sleepiness during the day. However, tea is more desired for a calming effect. The literature review stated it is commonly believed that coffee has more caffeine (Rogers, Smith, Heatherley, & Pleydell-Pearce, 2008). The qualitative results from our study support this with the perception that tea is not as strong as coffee and if students specifically want caffeine, they often choose coffee over tea.

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Discussion The adequacy of the study was pretty spot on for what was intended. The survey was carefully developed to capture specific data. All 16 participants completed all eight quantitative questions and two qualitative questions, which allowed for consistency in analyzing the results. The information gathered seemed to appropriately reflect graduate students’ frequency of consumption and reasons for selecting coffee and tea as a drink choice.

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Discussion With regards to the generalizability of research to the greater population, the results may reflect a more Western cultural norm. As we learned in our literature review, coffee and tea are consumed all around the world, with tea being drunk more worldwide than coffee and coffee being drunk more in the West (Quinlan et al., 2000). If we were to choose a sample population in different geographical locations on different continents, the results of our survey would highly vary. Coffee Tea

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Discussion However, in the United States, the data may be more consistent with our research findings. The coffee market is a huge part of our culture. With the abundant choices of cafes and coffee shops and the long list of options on how to take your coffee, it is assumed that more Americans drink coffee over tea. Our qualitative results showed that coffee is often chosen over tea because of a wide variety. The culture of graduate student life does encompass high expectations for academic performance while managing other personal and professional responsibilities. This requires energy, focus and often sacrificing sleep. The literature review stated that small doses of caffeine can increase alertness, improve performance, increase concentration, and enhance mood (Matranga, 2008). These factors may contribute to the higher levels of consuming coffee and tea in graduate school. This would be important to consider when comparing survey results to other focus groups throughout the country.

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Discussion The relevance of the data gathered is that coffee and tea are an important factor in the life of a graduate student. From a marketing perspective, it would make sense to have a coffee shop with free wifi near every college campus to provide two needs at the same time. It would be interesting to conduct further research on the cost analysis of maintaining this habit in graduate school as finances are a challenge for most students.

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Discussion In conclusion, we set out on a course to discover what is preferred in this particular graduate cohort at Azusa Pacific University. It was evident from the raw data that coffee is the winner. It is important to note that many of the students consume both coffee and tea and make their choices depending on the desired effect and the time of day. None of the students indicated that they do not drink tea. Therefore, the choice of coffee or tea is not one or the other, but rather when and why. We are pleased with how the survey was conducted, grateful for the participants, and overall we deemed this as an effective research project.

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References Bryan, J., Tuckey, M., Einöther, S. L., Garczarek, U., Garrick, A., & De Bruin, E. A. (2012). Relationships between tea and other beverage consumption to work performance and mood. Appetite , 58 (1), 339-346. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.11.009 Cropley, V., Croft, R., Silber, B., Neale, C., Scholey, A., Stough, C., & Schmitt, J. (2012). Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study. Psychopharmacology, 219 (3), 737-749. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2395-0 Dawkins, L., Shahzad, F., Ahmed, S. S., & Edmonds, C. J. (2011). Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood. Appetite , 57 (3), 597-600. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.07.011

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References Geybels, M. S., Neuhouser, M. L., Wright, J. L., Stott-Miller, M., & Stanford, J. L. (2013). Coffee and tea consumption in relation to prostate cancer prognosis. Cancer Causes & Control: CCC, 24 (11), 1947-1954. doi:10.1007/s10552-013-0270-5 Landrum, R. E. (1992). College students' use of caffeine and its relationship to personality. College Student Journal, 26 (2), 151-155. Matranga, J. (2008). Differential effects of tea versus coffee? The Tablet, 9 (3), 16-18. doi:10.1037/e625902012-007

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References Mets, M. J., Baas, D., van Boven, I., Olivier, B., & Verster, J. C. (2012). Effects of coffee on driving performance during prolonged simulated highway driving. Psychopharmacology, 222 (2), 337-342. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2647-7 McIlvain, G. E., Noland, M. P., & Bickel, R. (2011). Caffeine consumption patterns and beliefs of college freshmen. A merican Journal Of Health Education, 42 (4), 235-244. Noguchi-Shinohara, M., Yuki, S., Dohmoto, C., Ikeda, Y., Samuraki, M., Iwasa, K., & ... Yamada, M. (2014). Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline. Plos ONE, 9 (5), 1-8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096013

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References Quinlan, P., Lane, J., & Aspinall, L. (1997). Effects of hot tea, coffee and water ingestion on physiological responses and mood: The role of caffeine, water and beverage type. Psychopharmacology, 134 (2), 164-173. doi:10.1007/s002130050438 Quinlan, P. T., Lane, J., Moore, K. L., Aspen, J., Rycroft, J. A., & O'Brien, D. C. (2000). The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: The role of caffeine level. Pharmacology, Biochemistry And Behavior, 66 (1), 19-28. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(00)00192-1 Rogers, P. J., Smith, J. E., Heatherley, S. V., & Pleydell-Pearce, C. W. (2008). Time for tea: Mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology, 195 (4), 569-577. doi:10.1007/s00213-007-0938-1