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Preventing Cardiovascular Disease:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease

Learning Objectives:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Name the number one cause of death in the United States Identify four common cardiovascular diseases Discuss the major and contributory risk factors associated with the development of coronary heart disease Identify the coronary heart disease risk factors that can be modified by lifestyle alterations

Learning Objectives (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives (cont.) List the steps involved in reducing your risk of coronary heart disease Describe the link between dietary sodium and hypertension Identify the total blood cholesterol levels associated with low, moderate, and high risk of developing coronary heart disease Discuss the relationship between diet and elevated blood cholesterol levels

U.S. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. U.S. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence Number one cause of death in the United States Accounts for nearly one out of every two deaths Over 1 million people die annually from CVD More than 83 million people have some form of CVD Leading cause of death in men ages 35–44; rates in women are rising Economic costs related to CVD exceed $444 billion per year

Economic Costs of CVD :

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Economic Costs of CVD

Types of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Arteriosclerosis: A group of diseases "Hardening" or narrowing of the arteries Blocks blood flow to vital organs Atherosclerosis: A type of arteriosclerosis Blockage of fatty deposits in blood vessels ("plaque") Progressive disease, begins in childhood, symptoms appear later Coronary Heart Disease (CHD): Atherosclerotic plaque in artery Angina pectoris (chest pain): occurs with stress or exercise Heart attack: death of heart muscle cells/severity varies Stroke Brain blood supply reduced or blocked Brain damage from death of brain cells Effects can be short- or long-term/severity varies Hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure (>140/90) Long-term or acute = significant health problem

Plaque Buildup in Arteries:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Plaque Buildup in Arteries

Coronary Artery Blockage:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Coronary Artery Blockage

Blocked Artery Leading to Stroke:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Blocked Artery Leading to Stroke

Major CVD Risk Factors :

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Major CVD Risk Factors The following are directly related to developing CHD and stroke: Smoking More than 2x the risk of getting CHD than non-smokers Biggest risk factor: sudden death from cardiac arrest Second-hand smoke exposure as dangerous as direct inhalation Hypertension Both a disease and a risk factor for stroke Diets high in sodium increase risk High Blood Cholesterol Lipids in foods or synthesized in body = two kinds Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/"bad cholesterol" (optimal level < 100 mg/dl.) High-density lipoprotein (HDL)/"good cholesterol" (optimal level > 60 mg/dl.) Complete Lab 10.1: Finding Your Cholesterol Plan

Major CVD Risk Factors (cont.) :

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Major CVD Risk Factors (cont.) The following are directly related to developing CHD and stroke: Physical Inactivity Link to CHD Regular exercise counteracts many CHD risk factors Diabetes Mellitus Occurs often in middle age/common in overweight 75% of diabetics die from some form of CHD Obesity and Overweight More likely to develop CHD, even with no other risk factors Fat distribution = CHD risk: higher waist-to-hip ratio has greater risk

Major CVD Risk Factors (cont.) :

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Major CVD Risk Factors (cont.) The following are directly related to developing CHD and stroke: Heredity Children of CHD parents are more likely to get it Hereditary risk can be avoided, must worker harder at healthy lifestyle Family risk linked to cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes and obesity Complete Lab 10.3: Assess Your Genetic Risk for CVD Gender Men up to age 55 have higher risk After menopause, women's risk as high as men Age Risk increases with age

Contributory Risk Factors:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Contributory Risk Factors The following increase the risk of developing CHD: Stress Contributes to multiple risk factors: smoking, hypertension, and cholesterol Can release hormones elevating blood pressure Alcohol Consumption Excessive drinking increases risk of CHD, high blood sugar levels, cancer, and other diseases American Heart Association recommends abstinence or moderation Complete Lab 10.2: Evaluate Your CVD Risk

Hypertension and Genetics:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Hypertension and Genetics

CHD Risk Factors:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. CHD Risk Factors

Reduce Risk of Heart Disease:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Reduce Risk of Heart Disease Don't smoke Lower your blood pressure Eat a healthy, balanced diet Be physically active Reduce your stress level

Summary:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States Cardiovascular diseases include atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension Major CHD risk factors are smoking, hypertension, high blood cholesterol, inactivity, diabetes, obesity/overweight, heredity, gender, and increasing age Reduce your risk of coronary heart disease by not smoking, eating a healthy diet, being physically active, maintaining a healthy body weight, and reducing stress

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