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Exercise: The Environment and Special Populations:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise: The Environment and Special Populations

Learning Objectives:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Describe how to prevent heat loss during exercise List several important guidelines for exercising in a hot environment Describe the appropriate clothing for exercising in the heat Differentiate among the various types of heat injury Discuss how heat acclimatization reduces the risk of heat injury Describe the appropriate clothing for exercising in a cold environment List two major forms of air pollution that affect exercise performance Describe exercise strategies for coping with air pollution

Learning Objectives (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives (cont.) Discuss the importance of the following factors in achieving lifetime physical fitness: goal setting, selection of physical activities, planning exercise sessions, monitoring fitness programs, and social support Outline several common misconceptions about physical fitness List age-related changes in fitness and wellness and describe actions that you can take to maintain fitness and wellness throughout the life span

Environmental Effects on Human Performance:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental Effects on Human Performance Humans are homeotherms: Body temperature is regulated to stay close to a set point (98.6°F or 37°C) Changes can result in serious bodily injury Altitude and air pollution reduce the amount of oxygen that gets into the blood, meaning the body works harder

Temperature Ranges for Human Survival:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Temperature Ranges for Human Survival

Exercising in the Heat:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercising in the Heat Exercise muscle contraction = increase in body heat Hot/humid conditions = excess body heat Heat injury occurs if body temp exceeds 105 degrees Heat illness = dizziness, nausea, lack of sweat, and dry, hot, or clammy skin Short-term exposure (30–60 min) can cause heat injury There are two primary means of heat loss/cooling during exercise Convection: movement of air or water around the body The faster the air or water flow, the greater the heat loss Evaporation: heat release as sweat converts to gas If air temperature and humidity are high, evaporation is limited Determining factor: air temperature and humidity Evaporation = most important means of body heat loss

Body Temperature Responses :

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Temperature Responses

Heat Index:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Heat Index

Clothing for Hot Weather:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Clothing for Hot Weather Minimize the amount you wear Maximize exposed surface area for evaporation Clothes should be lightweight, light colored, absorb moisture, and allow air to move freely Wet/sweaty clothing is better for evaporation (heat exchange) Avoid heavyweight, rubber/plastic materials

Heat Acclimitization:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Heat Acclimitization Acclimitization = Physiological adaptations to environment Within 10–12 days of regular exercise during heat exposure Sweating begins earlier More sweat is produced (aiding evaporation) Blood volume increases Exercise heart rate decreases Body temperature decreases Heat injury = heat load exceeds body's ability to regulate body temperature, resulting in Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heat stroke To determine body's heat load, monitor heart rate

Temperature Changes on Heart Rate:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Temperature Changes on Heart Rate

Exercising in Hot/Humid Conditions:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercising in Hot/Humid Conditions Begin exercising slowly, keep sessions short (15–20 minutes max) Monitor heart rate often, keep intensity low Wear appropriate clothing Stay hydrated! Drink fluids before, during, after exercise sessions Exercise in the morning or evening, when temperatures are cooler If you must exercise mid-day, stay in the shade

Exercising in the Cold:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercising in the Cold Air temperature below 60°F requires warm clothing to prevent excessive loss of body heat Long periods of exposure overwhelm body's ability to maintain temperature level Losing body heat = hypothermia, disorientation, and may be life threatening Avoiding Hypothermia Limit duration of exercise Don't get wet Dress in layers with appropriate amounts and types of clothing

Clothing for Cold Weather:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Clothing for Cold Weather Proper Clothing, Worn in Layers Should trap enough heat to maintain body temperature, without overheating Layering especially important for upper body Base Layer Removes moisture from skin, moves it to next layer (wicking) Avoid cotton, tends to stay wet Middle Layer Further insulates the body, wicks moisture outward Often heavier than base layer Outer Layer Protects you from wind/water Windproof, waterproof, ventilated, lightweight jacket Hats, scarves, gloves protect extremities from frostbite

Layering Clothing in Cold Environments:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Layering Clothing in Cold Environments

Wind Chill Index:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Wind Chill Index

Exercising at High Altitudes:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercising at High Altitudes A lower barometric pressure = less oxygen transported in blood, decreasing VO 2 max, and exercise tolerance Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) Occurs at altitudes above 8000 ft Affects approx. 20% of individuals exercising at or above this altitude Affects some (up to 80%) who fly into high-elevation areas Symptoms: severe headaches, nausea, weakness, and dizziness Avoiding AMS Ascend slowly Sleep at lowest elevation possible If hiking or driving up, don't go farther if you feel AMS effects Drink plenty of water Avoid tobacco, alcohol, depressants Eat a high-carbohydrate diet

Effects of Altitude on Exercise Capacity:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of Altitude on Exercise Capacity

Effects of Elevation on Heart Rate and Ventilation:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of Elevation on Heart Rate and Ventilation

Exercise and Air Pollution:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise and Air Pollution Major Forms of Air Pollution Ozone (gas produced from sunlight and car exhaust) Extremely irritating to lungs and airways Causes chest tightness, coughing, headaches, nausea, throat and eye irritation, and bronchoconstriction May trigger asthma attacks Carbon monoxide (gas from fossil fuels and cigarette smoke) Reduces blood's capacity to carry oxygen to body and muscles High-traffic environments = serious health threat Coping with air pollution Avoid exercise when/where levels of pollutants are highest automobile traffic is heavy Complete Lab 12.1: Exercising in Harsh Environments

Avoiding High-Pollution Exercise Times:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Avoiding High-Pollution Exercise Times

Lifelong Exercise Considerations:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Lifelong Exercise Considerations Maintaining healthy level of fitness/wellness Lifelong process Your actions now significantly impact future health Fitness cannot be stored Principle of reversibility

Exercise Programming During All Life Stages:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise Programming During All Life Stages Most adults' physical activity declines with age and major lifestyle changes Maintain regular exercise as you age Properly plan exercise sessions, adjust schedule as your lifestyle changes Join a health club Get support or hire help if needed Change your physical activity needs as you age

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© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fitness During Pregnancy:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Fitness During Pregnancy Benefits: less weight gain, less discomfort, shorter labor, prevention of gestational diabetes Recommended Exercise Prescription Begin: 15 minutes minimum, low intensity, three times per week Gradually increase: 30–40 minutes of aerobic moderate-intensity exercise most days of week Maintain regular schedule Avoid activities with risks of injury or falling, or that put undue stress on joints Avoid exercising in heat Complete Lab 12.2: Exercise Training during Pregnancy

Physical and Mental Changes of Aging:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical and Mental Changes of Aging Cardiorespiratory function declines Bone density and mass decreases Skeletal muscle mass and function decreases Skin pigmentation changes Changes in taste and smell can lead to diminished appetite Brain and central nervous system (CNS) changes may lead to memory loss Hair thins and hair follicles change Vision often changes after age 40

Exercise Prescription for Older Adults:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise Prescription for Older Adults Consult your health care provider before beginning an exercise program Recommendations for Men After Age 45 and Women After Age 55 Take a graded exercise stress test prior to engaging in vigorous exercise Focus on non-weight-bearing exercises Exercise intensity at the lower end of THR range Limit frequency to 3–4 days per week Modify duration to meet individual needs/abilities

Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults

Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults (cont.)

Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults (cont.)

Sample Exercise Program for Healthy Older Adults:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Exercise Program for Healthy Older Adults

Sample Exercise Program for Healthy Older Adults (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Exercise Program for Healthy Older Adults (cont.)

Summary:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary Evaporation is the most important means of heat loss during exercise in a hot environment. Maximize the body surface area exposed to the air to ensure adequate release of body heat through evaporation Heat acclimatization occurs after several days of exposure to a hot environment. During exercise in hot environments, drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration Avoid hypothermia when exercising in a cold environment by dressing in layers, and in appropriate amounts and types of clothing Exercise at high altitude reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood, which reduces oxygen transport to the working muscles and lowers both VO 2 max and exercise tolerance Minimize the effects of air pollution during exercise by avoiding exercise when ozone or carbon monoxide levels are highest

Summary (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary (cont.) Exercise must be performed regularly throughout life to achieve the benefits of physical fitness, wellness, and disease prevention Appropriate exercise is safe and beneficial for healthy pregnant women Older adults can safely participate in regular exercise to gain and maintain fitness and reduce risk of disease Numerous changes take place in the body and mind during the aging process

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