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Stress Management:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Stress Management

Learning Objectives:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Discuss the terms stress, stressors, eustress, and distress Describe the relationship between stress and disease Discuss physical responses to stress List common sources of stress Outline the steps involved in stress management Discuss the general adaptation to stress syndrome Discuss the ideas of allostasis and allostatic load Describe four healthy methods to manage stress List three relaxation techniques that help lower stress

Stress:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Stress Stress : A state of mental and physical tension Homeostasis (balance) is disrupted Eustress is "positive" stress (can improve performance) Distress is "negative" stress (disrupts health & functioning) Stressor : A factor that produces stress physical or mental acute, cumulative, or chronic Stress Response : Body's reactions to stress Physiological/behavioral changes to stressor Complete Lab 11.1: Stress Index Questionnaire

Physiological Stress Response:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Physiological Stress Response Two main systems undergo changes under stress Nervous System : Controls voluntary/involuntary movement Autonomic nervous system (involuntary actions): Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches sympathetic triggers endocrine system, increasing energy parasympathetic functions during rest, relaxation Endocrine System : Glands/tissues that secrete hormones Under stress, endocrine system releases hormones activating stress response epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol Responses = heightened senses and raised heart rate

Physiological Stress Response (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Physiological Stress Response (cont.)

Fight-or-Flight Response:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Fight-or-Flight Response Combined stress responses of autonomic nervous system/endocrine system Automatic/primitive survival response: Individual faces (fight) or runs from (flight) perceived threats Responses activate body for action Increased awareness, quickened impulses, body temperature fluctuations, diminished pain perception Blood diverted from digestion to muscles After stressor dealt with, body returns to homeostasis (balance) Even though not "life and death," everyday life stressors evokes "fight-or-flight response

Factors Affecting Stress:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Factors Affecting Stress Personality Behavior Patterns: Four Common Types Type A Motivated, competitive, impatient, prone to anger and hostility Heightened response to and risk from stress Type B Easygoing, non-aggressive, patient Lower response to and risk from stress Type C Confident, motivated, competitive, not hostile Lower response to and risk from stress Type D Worried, inhibited, prone to anxiety, more isolated Heightened response to and risk from stress Complete Lab 11.4: Assessing Your Personality Behavior Pattern

Factors Affecting Stress (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Factors Affecting Stress (cont.) Past Experiences Perception/reaction to stressors influenced by prior experiences Learning from past responses leads to changing responses Gender No gender-specific physiological responses to stress Gender may affect stress perceptions Common/Everyday Causes Life is often stressful: schoolwork, relationships, finances, traffic Complete Lab 11.2: Keeping a Stress Diary

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© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Stress and Health:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Stress and Health Chronic stress = serious health problems in the United States elevated BP, heart disease, hormonal imbalances, reduced immune system, emotional disorders including depression Acute stress problems Headaches, body aches and tension, irritability, decreased concentration 75–90% of all doctor visits for stress-related complaints/ailments Billions of dollars lost by businesses/government Absenteeism and health-care costs due to stress-related problems

Negative Effects of Chronic Stress:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Negative Effects of Chronic Stress

General Adaptation Syndrome:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. General Adaptation Syndrome Three-Stage Adaptation to Stress Alarm Stage : Initial exposure to stress Fight-or-flight response activates Body is more injury-prone and susceptible to disease Resistance Stage : Continued exposure to stress Stress resistance is higher than normal Body improves capacity to deal with stress Exhaustion Stage : Persistent exposure to stress Physical resources for responding depleted Body vulnerable to disease

Allostasis - Allostatic Load:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Allostasis - Allostatic Load Allostasis Body's ability to change/adapt to stress Body seeks homeostasis, does not adapt well under long-term stress Allostatic Load Body's limit for stress Constant or repeated activation of stress responses Stress response is inefficient and health is compromised

Managing Stress:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Managing Stress Identify and manage your personal stressors Get adequate rest and sleep Exercise Use relaxation techniques Progressive relaxation Breathing exercises Meditation Visualization Develop spiritual wellness habits Develop and use a support network Avoid counterproductive behaviors Tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs Disordered eating patterns Complete Lab 11.3: Managing Time and Establishing Priorities

Relaxation Techniques Stress Reduction:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Relaxation Techniques Stress Reduction

Sample Stress Management Program::

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Stress Management Program:

Summary:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary Stress is a state of physical and mental tension in response to a situation that is perceived as a threat or challenge A stressor is any factor that produces stress Poorly managed stress can lead to significant health problems The endocrine and autonomic nervous systems are the primary responders to stress, and combine in the fight-or-flight response Personality behavior patterns, past experiences, and gender can affect the way we respond to stressors Two steps in stress management include reducing stressors in your life and improving your ability to relax Common relaxation techniques include progressive relaxation, breathing exercises, rest and sleep, exercise, meditation, and visualization

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