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Nutrition, Health, and Fitness:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition, Health, and Fitness

Learning Objectives:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Define macro- and micronutrients Describe the macronutrients and the primary functions of each Discuss the energy content of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the body Describe the micronutrients and the primary functions of each Discuss the value of water in the diet List the dietary guidelines for a well-balanced diet

Learning Objectives (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives (cont.) Define the term calorie Describe the need for proteins, carbohydrates, and vitamins for physically active individuals Discuss the benefits and detriments of irradiation of foods Define a dietary supplement and discuss governmental regulation for marketing such supplements


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition Study of food and how the body uses it to produce energy and build and repair itself Good nutrition includes Eating a diet supplying all of the essential nutrients required to maintain a healthy body Taking in nutrients to prevent dietary deficiencies Avoiding overconsumption of calories, sugars, fats, and sodium Complete Lab 8.1 to analyze your diet Complete Lab 8.4 to assess nutritional habits


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrients Basic substances in food are required to maintain health. There are two main categories Macronutrients Needed in greater amounts Build/maintain body tissue and provide energy Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Micronutrients Needed in smaller amounts Essential for many processes, including cell functions Vitamins Minerals Water is an additional class of nutrient, critical for survival and normal functioning


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbohydrates Main source of fuel for the brain Key energy source for muscular contraction 4 calories of energy per gram Includes whole grains, pasta, fruits, vegetables Two types Simple carbohydrates (sugars) Glucose Glycogen Easier for the body to break down and use for energy Complex carbohydrates Starch (fuel source) Fiber (not a fuel source)

Recommended vs. Typical Diet:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Recommended vs. Typical Diet


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Fats Energy storage known as triglycerides Part of a larger class of substances called lipids 9 Kcals of energy per gram Types of fatty acids Saturated (solid at room temperature/come from animal sources) Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Trans (found in baked and fried foods, and some animal sources) Unsaturated (liquid at room temperature, come from plant sources) Omega-3 (health benefits, found mainly in fish)


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sources of Trans Fat in the Diet:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sources of Trans Fat in the Diet


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Proteins Build and repair body tissue Regulate metabolism/protect from disease 4 kcals per gram, usually not a major fuel source Basic structural units are amino acids Complete Proteins Only in animal foods and soy products Contain all essential amino acids Incomplete Proteins Present in vegetable sources Missing one or more of the essential amino acids

Estimated Daily Protein Needs:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Estimated Daily Protein Needs

Vitamins and Minerals:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins Help regulate growth and metabolism Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body (B and C) Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body (A, D, E, and K) Minerals Chemical elements that help the body function Three key minerals: calcium, iron, sodium Osteoporosis: calcium deficiency disease Anemia: iron deficiency health problem Hypertension (high blood pressure): tied to too much sodium In individuals who exercise, both vitamins and minerals help protect against tissue damage See Tables 8.2 and 8.3 Vitamin/Mineral Sources, Functions


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Water Comprises about 60–70% of your body Key nutrient for regulating body temperature, digestion, absorption, blood formation, and elimination Crucial for active people Losing as little as 5% body water causes marked distress; more than 15% can be fatal Recommended to drink 8–10 cups per day Eating foods with high water content can help you reach the daily minimum

Daily Water Balance in the Body:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Daily Water Balance in the Body

Guidelines for a Healthy Diet:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Guidelines for a Healthy Diet Eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains Balance what you eat with regular exercise Limit intake of calories, sugar, alcohol, fat, and sodium Choose higher-fiber foods Take proper food safety precautions Use the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), MyPlate, and food labels to plan healthy meals Complete Lab 8.2 to set goals for a healthy diet Complete Lab 8.3 to plan a new diet


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPlate

Using Nutrition Labels:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Using Nutrition Labels

Special Dietary Considerations:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Dietary Considerations Most people eating a balanced diet don't need supplements Individuals with special needs benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements Vegetarians: extra B 12 , D Pregnant women: folic acid Others who may benefit People with chronic illnesses People on certain medications Athletes undergoing rigorous training Lactating woman People on prolonged low-calorie diets Vegetarians Be careful to plan meals to meet body's need for macro/micronutrients that may be missing due to not consuming foods from animal sources

Special Dietary Considerations (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Dietary Considerations (cont.) Iron: Essential component of red blood cells Women menstruating, pregnant, or nursing need adequate iron Too much has potential for toxicity Sources: legumes, fruits, whole-grain cereals, broccoli, lean red meats, organ meats Calcium : Essential for building bones and teeth Especially important for pregnant or nursing women May help prevent colon cancer Critical for children and teens Sources: low- and nonfat dairy foods, tuna fish, turnips, mustard greens, broccoli

How Does Nutrition Affect Physical Fitness?:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. How Does Nutrition Affect Physical Fitness? Carbohydrates are used for energy during exercise Protein needs can be met with a healthy diet High vitamin intake WILL NOT improve performance Antioxidants help prevent oxidative damage

Carbohydrates and Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbohydrates and Exercise

Do Supplements Enhance Health and Performance?:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Do Supplements Enhance Health and Performance? Role of Supplements No scientific evidence currently validates the claim that supplements improve health or exercise performance Best approach is to eat a wide variety of foods and avoid excessive supplements Regulation of Supplements No FDA approval is required (supplements are not tested) Manufacturers self-police the safety of supplements with no oversight Manufacturers cannot make claims about supplements concerning the treatment, prevention, or cure of diseases


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Foodborne Illness:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Foodborne Illness Eating foods with some bacteria can make you sick Often causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea within 12 hours to 5 days after consumption Can be fatal in children or at-risk people Safety Guidelines Select produce carefully Wash produce thoroughly Drink only pasteurized milk and juice Don't eat raw eggs or raw fish Keep perishables cold or frozen Cook all meats thoroughly Use separate cutting boards and utensils for meat and produce Wash and rinse dishes, utensils, and food preparation surfaces thoroughly Wash your hands thoroughly before and after handling food

Other Issues in Food Safety and Technology:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Other Issues in Food Safety and Technology Food additives are used by manufacturers to improve quality, taste and/or color, and increase shelf life Common additives—sugar, salt, corn syrup, monosodium glutamate (MSG), sulfites, nitrites Some people have greater sensitivity to additives and should avoid or limit them Organic foods are grown or raised without pesticides, hormones, antibiotics or chemical fertilizers There is no research supporting the claim that organic foods are nutritionally superior Irradiation is used to kill microorganisms and prolong shelf life Data is limited regarding whether irradiation and bioengineered foods are safe Irradiated foods use a label identifying them and attesting to their safety

Sample Program for Changing Daily Caloric Intake:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Program for Changing Daily Caloric Intake

Sample Program for Changing Daily Caloric Intake (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Program for Changing Daily Caloric Intake (cont.)

Sample Program for Changing Daily Caloric Intake (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Program for Changing Daily Caloric Intake (cont.)


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary Nutrition is the study of food and its relationship to health and disease Nutrients include macronutrients, micronutrients, and water Vitamins and minerals play many important roles in body regulation and functioning A healthy diet contains adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and dairy products, and limited quantities of sugar, fat, sodium, and alcohol

Summary (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary (cont.) Calorie intake should be balanced against calorie expenditure RDAs, MyPlate, and food labels can all help you choose healthy foods in the proper proportions Most people who eat balanced diets do not need supplements Foodborne illnesses can be largely prevented through careful selection, preparation, storage, and cleaning of foods, utensils, surfaces, and hands

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