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Cardiorespiratory Endurance: Assessment and Prescription:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Cardiorespiratory Endurance: Assessment and Prescription

Learning Objectives:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Explain the benefits of developing cardiorespiratory endurance Identify the two energy systems used in ATP production for muscular contraction Discuss the role of the circulatory and respiratory systems during exercise Define VO 2max Identify the main changes that occur in the skeletal, circulatory, and respiratory systems in aerobic training List several modes of cardiorespiratory training Outline the main components of an exercise prescription for cardiorespiratory fitness Design a cardiorespiratory endurance exercise program

What Is Cardiorespiratory Endurance and What Does It Do?:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Cardiorespiratory Endurance and What Does It Do? The ability to perform aerobic exercises for a prolonged period of time Promotes weight loss Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) Widely considered to be the most important component of health-related physical fitness

What Is the Cardiorespiratory System?:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is the Cardiorespiratory System? It is made up of the following two cooperating systems: the cardiovascular/circulatory (the heart and blood vessels) system the respiratory (the lungs and related muscles) system Together, these systems deliver oxygen and nutrients, and remove waste products, throughout the body Exercise challenges the cardiorespiratory system by increasing the demand for oxygen and nutrients in working muscles

The Role of VO2max:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Role of VO 2max The most valid measure of cardiorespiratory fitness VO 2max = maximal aerobic capacity (the maximum amount of oxygen the body can take in and use during exercise) VO 2max measures the endurance of the cardiorespiratory system and the skeletal muscles during exercise

The Cardiovascular System:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cardiovascular System The Heart (two pumps in one) Right side/pulmonary circuit Left side/systemic circuit Blood Vessels Arteries: carry blood away from the heart Veins: carry blood from body tissues back to the heart Capillaries: thin-walled blood vessels that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through to tissues, and waste products (e.g.,carbon dioxide) to pass back into the vascular system for processing

The Respiratory System:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Respiratory System Controls breathing Consists of lungs and related muscles The lungs exhale carbon dioxide and waste products inhale oxygen, some of which passes into alveoli (tiny air sacs), and then into capillaries send oxygen-rich blood back to the heart

Blood Flow Through the Cardiorespiratory System:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Blood Flow Through the Cardiorespiratory System

Getting Energy for Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Getting Energy for Exercise Energy The fuel needed for muscle motion Derived from the breakdown of food Energy released from the breakdown of food creates a compound called ATP (adenosine triphosphate) ATP is stored in muscle and cells in small amounts The breakdown of ATP creates energy in a form that muscles can use for movement Therefore, ATP must be available for muscles in order for them to function

Aerobic and Anaerobic Systems:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Aerobic and Anaerobic Systems Two systems in muscle cells produce ATP Anaerobic (without oxygen) Provides energy for exercise that is short duration and intense, at the beginning of activity Produced through glycolysis , a process that breaks down carbohydrates Can only use carbohydrates as an energy source Aerobic (with oxygen) The primary system for cardiorespiratory endurance Relies on oxygen for ATP production Can use fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to produce ATP Supports prolonged exercise, with a shift from carbohydrates to fats as the primary energy source Most daily activities rely on aerobic ATP production

Energy Metabolism During Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy Metabolism During Exercise

Changes in the Cardiorespiratory System from Exercise and Training:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Changes in the Cardiorespiratory System from Exercise and Training Responses to exercise Short-term changes that occur during and immediately after exercise Adaptations to exercise Changes over time that accrue with regular exercise

Responses to Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Responses to Exercise Heart rate increases Stroke volume increases Arteries dilate/expand Breathing rate increases

Adaptations to Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations to Exercise Resting heart rate decreases Maximum stroke volume increases VO 2max increases Respiratory muscle endurance improves Muscles' capacity to produce aerobic energy increases Adaptations are lost/reversed if exercise is stopped for an extended period

Relationship Between Training Intensity and VO2max Improvement:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Relationship Between Training Intensity and VO 2max Improvement

Health Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Health Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Lower risk of heart disease Reduced risk of type 2 diabetes Lower blood pressure Increased bone density Increased energy Improved well-being and self-esteem Easier weight control Better sleep

Evaluating Cardiorespiratory Endurance:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Evaluating Cardiorespiratory Endurance 1.5-mile run test One of the simplest and most accurate tests 1-mile walk test Widely used field measure Cycle ergometer test Non-weight-bearing/good for people with joint problems Step test Can be performed by people at any fitness level

Designing Your Aerobic Exercise Program:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Designing Your Aerobic Exercise Program Set goals (short-term and long-term) Warm-up Workout (FITT principle) F requency (e.g., 3–5 times per week) I ntensity (e.g., 50–85% of maximal heart rate) training threshold target heart rate (THR) heart rate reserve (HRR) Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) T ime/duration (e.g., 20–60 minutes per session) T ype/mode of exercise (e.g., jogging) Cool-down Main stages of the exercise program: initial conditioning, progression, and maintenance

Calculate Target Heart Rate (THR):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Calculate Target Heart Rate (THR) Maximal HR HR max = 206.9 – (.67 x age yrs.) 206.9 – (.67 x 20 yrs.) = HR max of 194bpm HRR (heart rate reserve) = HR max – Resting HR 194 HR max – 60RHR = HRR of 134bpm Calculate 50% to 85% of HRR and add RHR to obtain THR .50 x 134 HRR = 67 bpm + 60 RHR = THR of 127 bpm .85 x 134 HRR = 114 bpm + 60 RHR = THR of 174 bpm THR range of 127 bpm to 174 bpm for 20 yr. old

Sample Workout in the Target Heart Rate Range:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Workout in the Target Heart Rate Range

Maximal Heart Rate Over Time:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Maximal Heart Rate Over Time

Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Consider overall Breathing rate Amount of sweating Muscle fatigue 15-point scale, ranging from 6 to 20 6 on the scale means that there is no level of exertion 8–11 on the scale is common during the warm-up or cool-down phase of the workout 12–16 on the scale will correspond with the target heart rate range for most people

Exercises and Activities That Can Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercises and Activities That Can Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Developing an Individualized Exercise Prescription:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Developing an Individualized Exercise Prescription Initial Conditioning Phase Lasts roughly 2–4 weeks Start at a comfortable intensity level Increase duration or intensity gradually (separately not both at once) Be aware of body pains, and rest as needed

Developing an Individualized Exercise Prescription (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Developing an Individualized Exercise Prescription (cont.) Improvement Phase Ranges from 12 to 40 weeks Progress is more rapid than in initial phase Increase duration and frequency first, then intensity

Developing an Individualized Exercise Prescription (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Developing an Individualized Exercise Prescription (cont.) Maintenance Phase Fitness goal has been achieved Continue exercising regularly, but no need to continue increasing duration, frequency, and intensity Key factor in maintenance appears to be intensity level

Training Techniques:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Training Techniques Endurance training techniques = continuous activity at a constant intensity level Cross Training Alternate multiple training modes May reduce risk of overuse injuries Improves overall cardiorespiratory endurance Some people enjoy increased variety

Training Techniques (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Training Techniques (cont.) Interval Training Often used by athletes to attain higher endurance levels in specific fitness areas Uses repeated sessions (intervals) of higher-intensity exercises alternated with lower-intensity exercises May be used to spur gains in intensity during improvement phase Should not be done on a daily basis

Staying Motivated:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Staying Motivated Most common reason cited for dropping out of exercise programs is lack of time Recognize that making time for exercise can be challenging, but not impossible Schedule a regular time to exercise and stick with it Remember that small time investments in exercise can lead to big improvements: in your total available hours per week, as few as three 30-minute workouts (workout phase) can improve cardiorespiratory health Create goals and seek support Keep a record of your progress Don't get discouraged by initial aches or pains; they will improve as you continue to exercise You will feel, look, and function better in all areas of your life

Summary:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary Cardiorespiratory fitness benefits include lower disease risk, greater capacity for everyday tasks, and improved self-esteem ATP provides the energy muscles need to move: It is produced by the anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic (with oxygen) systems Anaerobic ATP is the primary energy source for short-term exercise; aerobic ATP production fuels prolonged exercise The cardiorespiratory system is two cooperating systems: 1) the cardiovascular/circulatory and 2) the respiratory. The circulatory system transports blood carrying oxygen and nutrients to body tissues. The respiratory system loads oxygen into and removes carbon dioxide from the blood.

Summary (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary (cont.) Responses are short-term bodily changes that meet the immediate demands of exercising; adaptations are long-term changes that result from regular training, and remain as long as training continues. VO 2max measures the maximum capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to transport and use oxygen during exercise. Different field tests can estimate VO 2max . The main elements of an exercise prescription are warm-up, workout, and cool-down

Summary (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary (cont.) The components of the workout phase are frequency, intensity, time/duration, and type/mode of exercise (FITT) An exercise prescription for improving cardiorespiratory fitness has three phases: initial conditioning, improvement, and maintenance Maintaining a successful exercise program requires managing your time and selecting activities you enjoy

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