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General Principles of Exercise for Health and Fitness:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. General Principles of Exercise for Health and Fitness

Learning Objectives:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Understand the overload principle , principle of progression , specificity of exercise , principle of recuperation , and reversibility of training effects Outline the physiological effects of a warm-up and cool-down Identify the general principles of an exercise prescription Understand the concepts of progression and maintenance of exercise training Explain the importance of individualizing the workout Understand what is required to reach the threshold for health benefits

Principles of Exercise Training:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Principles of Exercise Training Overload principle Principle of progression Specificity of exercise Principle of recuperation Reversibility of training effects

Overload Principle:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Overload Principle Overload is the major component of all conditioning programs To improve fitness, the muscular and cardiorespiratory systems of the body must be stressed Overload is achieved by increasing Intensity of exercise - low, moderate, vigorous Duration of exercise - time Examples of overload via duration include Working a muscle longer by increasing the number of repetitions Holding a stretch for a longer period of time, or stretching the muscle to a longer length Overload does NOT mean engaging in painful or exhausting workouts

Overload Principle:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Overload Principle

Principle of Progression:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Principle of Progression An extension of the overload principle Overload is increased gradually over the course of an exercise program Slow, gradual overload increase first 4–6 weeks of a program (starter phase) Steady, progressive overload increase next 18–20 weeks Once desired fitness level is achieved, develop a maintenance program to sustain the benefits Ten percent rule : a common-sense guideline to improve physical fitness without injury Training intensity or exercise duration should be increased by no more than 10% a week

Principle of Progression:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Principle of Progression

Principle of Specificity:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Principle of Specificity States that exercise training effect is specific to those muscles involved in the activity Underscores the importance of varied exercises and overall fitness improvement Determines the types of adaptations that occur within muscles that undergo exercise E.g., strength training via free weights will not significantly improve endurance

Principle of Recuperation:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Principle of Recuperation Recovery periods between exercise sessions allow adaptation to exercise stress 24 hours of rest is essential for achieving maximal benefits from exercise Failure to rest can lead to a fatigue syndrome known as overtraining Overtraining can lead to injuries or chronic fatigue To remedy overtraining, increase the period of rest between sessions, or reduce the intensity of the workouts, or both

Principle of Recuperation:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Principle of Recuperation

Principle of Reversibility:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Principle of Reversibility The loss of fitness due to inactivity Going too long between exercise sessions, or having an inconsistent routine The speed at which fitness is lost depends on the nature of the exercise Stopping strength training will result in slow, gradual loss of muscular strength Stopping endurance-related exercise results in relatively swift loss of muscular endurance

Principle of Reversibility:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Principle of Reversibility

Exercise Prescription:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise Prescription For each person, there is a correct "dose" of exercise, tailored to meet their individual needs Based on general health, age, current fitness level, musculoskeletal condition, and body composition Exercise Prescriptions include Setting fitness goals (short-term and long-term) Mode of exercise Warm-up Primary conditioning period (the workout) Cool-down

Setting Fitness Goals:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Setting Fitness Goals Establish short-term and long-term fitness goals Visualize goals to increase motivation Achieve goals to improve self-esteem and provide incentive for lifetime commitment to exercise

Mode of Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mode of Exercise The specific type of exercise to be performed Can be classified by High-impact exercises (puts more stress on joints) Low-impact exercises (less stress on joints) Due to the high correlation between high-impact exercise and injury, low-impact modes are usually recommended for fitness beginners Examples of high-impact activities are Running, basketball, some types of aerobic dance Examples of low-impact activities are Walking, cycling, swimming

Warm-Up:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Warm-Up A brief period of exercise that precedes a workout Usually light calisthenics or low-intensity exercises Often includes stretching Designed to elevate muscle temperature and increase blood flow to targeted muscles Reduces potential strain on the heart that would result from rapidly engaging in heavy exercise May reduce the risk of muscle and tendon injuries

The Workout (Primary Conditioning Period):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Workout (Primary Conditioning Period) Major components are frequency, intensity, and time/duration, known as the FIT principle Frequency = number of times per week you exercise Recommended 3–5 times per week Intensity = amount of physiological stress (overload) placed on the body Methods of measurement include heart rate, counting repetitions, or degree of tension in a stretch Time/duration = length of time actually performing exercise Does not include warm-up or cool-down 30 minutes per exercise session (at 3+ sessions per week) is minimum time necessary to improve fitness

The Workout (Primary Conditioning Period):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Workout (Primary Conditioning Period)

Cool-Down:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Cool-Down A 5–15 minute period of low-intensity exercise immediately following the workout Lowers body temperature, and allows blood to return from the muscles to the heart Failure to redistribute the blood after intense exercising may cause fainting or lightheadedness Best method is to do low-intensity exercises using the same muscle groups used in the workout Example of a cool-down exercise: slow walking following a running workout

Personalizing Your Workout:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Personalizing Your Workout

How Much Exercise Is Enough?:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. How Much Exercise Is Enough? Threshold for health benefits : the minimum level of exercise required to achieve significant health benefits Most fitness experts agree on this formula to exceed the threshold for health benefits and reduce all causes of death: 30–60 minutes of moderate-to-high intensity exercise performed 3–5 days per week Current public health recommendations are lower, recommending a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity daily, although this dose of exercise may not be adequate to prevent weight gain

Relationship Between Physical Activity and Improved Health Benefits:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Improved Health Benefits

Removing Barriers to Physical Activity:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Removing Barriers to Physical Activity Four major barriers contribute to low levels of exercise Lack of time Social and environmental influences Inadequate resources Lack of motivation/commitment Most important barrier to establishing regular exercise program Lab 2.4 can assist you identifying/overcoming personal barriers

Summary:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary The overload principle is the most important principle of exercise training The principle of progression, specificity of exercise, principle of recuperation, and reversibility of training effects also play key roles in developing physical fitness Components of an exercise prescription include fitness goals, mode of activity, warm-up, workout, and cool-down All exercise programs should be individually tailored, and should consider a person's age, overall health, current fitness level, musculoskeletal condition and body composition The threshold for health benefits is the minimum activity level required to achieve significant health benefits

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