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Understanding Fitness and Wellness:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Understanding Fitness and Wellness

Learning Objectives:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Understand the wellness concept Outline the components of wellness Describe the health benefits of exercise Compare the goals of health-related fitness and sport performance conditioning programs Describe the components of health-related physical fitness Describe the Stages of Change model and the steps to making positive health behavior changes


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Wellness A state of healthy living achieved by a lifestyle that includes Regular physical activity Proper nutrition Elimination of unhealthy behavior (avoiding high-risk activities) Maintaining positive emotional and spiritual health

Six Components of Wellness:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Six Components of Wellness Physical Health Includes proper nutrition, performing self-exams, and practicing personal safety Emotional Health (mental health) Includes social skills, positive interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, and the ability to cope with stress Intellectual Health Keeping your mind active through life-long learning

Six Components of Wellness cont.:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Six Components of Wellness cont. Spiritual Health Having a sense of meaning and purpose in life Social Health Developing and maintaining meaningful interpersonal relationships Environmental Health Environmental influence on your health, and your behaviors that have an effect on the environment

Interaction of Wellness Components:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Interaction of Wellness Components

Wellness Goals for the Nation:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Wellness Goals for the Nation U.S. government's wellness goals for the nation, called Healthy People 2020 Healthy People 2020 primary goals increase the number and quality of healthy years for all Americans reduce health disparities across segments of the population in our society provide social/physical environments that promote good health promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages

Wellness Goals for the Nation (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Wellness Goals for the Nation (cont.) Key Healthy People 2020 objectives Increase daily physical activity levels Reduce the death rate from cancers including lung, prostate, and skin (melanoma) cancer Increase proportion of physician visits to include nutrition/weight counseling or education Increase number of states with nutrition standards for preschool aged children in child care Reduce number of adolescents engaged in disordered eating to control body weight Increase proportion of adults who get sufficient sleep Reduce binge drinking of alcoholic beverages

Physical Activity vs. Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Activity vs. Exercise Physical Activity All physical movement, regardless of the energy expenditure or reason for it Can involve occupational, lifestyle, or leisure activities Exercise Type of leisure-time physical activity Performed specifically to enhance health and/or fitness Involves planned, structured, repetitive bodily movement, so includes all conditioning activities and sports

Benefits of Regular Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Benefits of Regular Exercise

Getting Regular Exercise:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Getting Regular Exercise During a myocardial infarction (a heart attack), exercise-trained individuals suffer less cardiac injury compared to untrained individuals.

Exercise Aids Aging Well:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise Aids Aging Well

Five Major Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Five Major Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness Cardiorespiratory endurance Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition

Cardiorespiratory Endurance:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Cardiorespiratory Endurance Also referred to as aerobic fitness Considered KEY component of health-related physical fitness Indicates heart's ability to pump blood to muscles during exercise Indicates muscles' ability to utilize oxygen in the blood Comprises ability to perform endurance exercises, such as running, cycling, and swimming

Muscular Strength:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscular Strength How much force a muscle (or muscle group) generates during a single maximal contraction Important in almost all sports Allows optimal functioning in everyday tasks Even modest amounts of weight training ( resistance training ) improve muscular strength

Muscular Endurance:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscular Endurance Ability of muscle to generate a submaximal force repeatedly Related to, but not the same as, muscular strength gains in muscular strength can improve muscular endurance gains in muscular endurance do not improve muscular strength


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Flexibility Ability to move joints freely through full range of motion Without regular stretching, muscles and tendons shorten and become tight Everyone needs some degree of flexibility to function normally Research suggests flexibility is important in injury prevention and reducing low back pain

Body Composition:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Composition Relative amounts of fat and lean tissue in your body High percentage of body fat (obesity) is associated with increased risk of developing CVD diabetes some cancers Regular physical activity/exercise key to maintaining healthy body fat percentage

Five Stages to Behavior Change:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Five Stages to Behavior Change Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance

The Stages of Change Model:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Stages of Change Model Progression through stages is not usually linear Individuals often move between stages several times before permanent change is achieved Setbacks are common: this DOES NOT mean failure Evaluating setbacks is crucial to developing a better plan Key element is the DESIRE to change Complete the "Steps to Behavior Change" evaluation in the text to assess your typical efforts to change a behavior

Behavior Modification Strategies:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Behavior Modification Strategies Behavior change contracts List goals and plans and sign the contract, along with a support person Setting realistic short-term and long-term goals SMART goals specific measurable action-oriented realistic time-stamped Self-monitoring Analyze your behavior and identify triggers

Behavior Modification Strategies (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Behavior Modification Strategies (cont.) Counter conditioning Replace unhealthy behaviors with healthy ones Self-Reinforcement Reward yourself (appropriately) when you meet goals Decisional Balance Weigh the positive outcomes against behavior negatives Relapse Prevention Identify high-risk triggers and develop a plan to avoid them

Assess Your Habits:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Assess Your Habits Perform a personal assessment of risky health habits Complete Lab 1.1 Lifestyle Assessment Inventory Identify where you are in Stages of Change model Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance

Identify Barriers:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Identify Barriers Identifying personal barriers is a key element in relapse prevention Examples of barriers include time constraints social pressure force of habit negative self-image

Change Unhealthy Behaviors:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Change Unhealthy Behaviors Develop a detailed plan of action Complete Lab 1.2 Changing Your Behavior Seek out resources (counselors, fitness specialists, support groups, etc.) if you need help Shaping : break a task or behavior into small steps to accomplish larger goal Shaping makes changes seem less overwhelming

Increasing Physical Activity:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Increasing Physical Activity Engage in small moderate bouts of physical activity throughout day Use a pedometer and attempt to accumulate 10,000 steps per day Use stairs rather than elevator Walk to all classes Walk to accomplish errands Park at back of parking lots Incorporate exercises when watching TV or on breaks at work

Increasing Physical Activity (cont.):

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Increasing Physical Activity (cont.) Plan your individualized program for increasing physical activity


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary Wellness means "healthy living" Total wellness is achieved through a balance of physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, social, and environmental health Regular exercise offers many important health benefits The five key components of "total" health-related physical fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition Behavior modification strategies can be very helpful in changing health behaviors

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