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Chapter 7: Eating Right:

Chapter 7: Eating Right McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

Why do you need to know about nutrition?:

7- 2 Why do you need to know about nutrition? Nutrition: The science of certain food substances Important terminology nutrition - diuretics diet - nutrient density nutrients - requirement deficiencies - recommendations over-nutrition

Basic Principles of Nutrition:

7- 3 Basic Principles of Nutrition Diet refers to food selection Nutrients serve three major roles: Growth, repair and maintenance of all body cells Regulation of body processes Supply of energy for cells Some nutrients can be made by the body Essential nutrients must be supplied by an individual’s diet

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7- 4 6 major nutrients: Carbohydrates Fats Protein Water Minerals Vitamins If all necessary nutrients are not brought into the body, nutritional deficiencies may develop Macronutrients Micronutrients

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7- 5 Overnutrition Eating too much food or specific nutrients Common problem in the United States Can lead to obesity Energy for the body Energy value of food is measured in calories Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram Fat = 9 calories per gram Protein = 4 calories per gram Alcohol = 7 calories per gram

MACRONUTRIENTS:

7- 6 MACRONUTRIENTS

Carbohydrates (CHO):

7- 7 Carbohydrates (CHO) Provides body with energy While body will also run on fat and protein, CHO is preferred source of energy 55% of total caloric intake should be accounted for by CHO Classified into simple (sugars) or complex (starch, glycogen, fiber)

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7- 8 Sugars: Simple carbohydrates that occur as single or double-sugar chemical units Glucose (blood sugar) is needed to fuel cells Must be careful not to consume too much sugar in diet (empty calories) Starches: Complex carbohydrates (long glucose chains) Found in cereal grains, potatoes, and beans Glycogen is broken down and released as glucose in the body when necessary

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7- 9 Fiber: Helps individuals avoid constipation Low fiber diets are blamed for intestinal problems Also may be helpful in lowering blood cholesterol levels, which are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease Most forms are complex carbohydrates Sources Dietary and functional fiber Fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals, nuts, beans, and peas

Fats:

7- 10 Fats Extremely important in one’s diet Extra calories consumed as carbohydrates, proteins and fats can all be converted into triglycerides and stored for future use Stored fat serves multiple functions: Serves to cushion organs Provides energy to muscles

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7- 11 Saturated vs. unsaturated fats: Saturated fats are derived primarily from animal products Found in meat (pork, chicken, beef), eggs, and dairy products Also can be found in coconut and palm oils Increase blood cholesterol levels Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature Contain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids Found in vegetable and fish oils Tend to be better for an individual

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7- 12 Cholesterol : Fat-related substance found in animal foods Believed to be responsible for creating blocked arteries If enough is not consumed, your body will produce it naturally Trans fatty acids: Resemble saturated fatty acids Results in hardening oils Will boost levels of bad cholesterol No safe level as there is no health benefit

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7- 13 Fat intake: Total fat consumption vs. consuming specific fats Makes up 40% of total calories consumed by Americans Recommended levels (25-30%) Cholesterol recommended levels = 300mg Recommendations on reducing fat intake may be partially responsible for reducing cardiovascular deaths

Protein:

7- 14 Protein Required for growth, repair and maintenance of cells Major constituent of all structures and organs of the body Not a primary source of energy Greater need for protein during periods of growth, breast feeding, active body-building

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7- 15 Recommendations: 0.8 grams/kg of body weight Should be approx. 12-15% of caloric intake Proteins are composed of smaller sub-units (amino acids) 20 amino acids in the body, 9 must be supplied by diet All are necessary for growth Primarily found in animal products, some in plants

MICRONUTRIENTS:

7- 16 MICRONUTRIENTS

Water:

7- 17 Water Most essential nutrient: 60% of the adult body is water Required for energy production, maintaining cell function, and cooling of the body Body requires 2.5 liters (10 glasses) daily Sports drinks: Allows for hydration, electrolyte and energy replacement Better for re-hydrating, water itself can shut off thirst response and turn on kidney function prematurely

Vitamins:

7- 18 Vitamins Vitamins (13) serve as regulators in many body processes Help to regulate metabolism and energy production, not a source of energy Elderly, alcoholics, and those that restrict food intake severely are susceptible to vitamin deficiencies

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7- 19 Fat soluble vitamins: Vitamins A, D, E, K Found in fatty portion of foods and oils Not easily eliminated from the body Stored in liver and body fat – can make them potentially toxic Water soluble vitamins: Vitamin C, B-complex vitamins Help to regulate metabolism but cannot be stored Each serves a series of roles

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7- 20 Antioxidants: May prevent premature aging, cancers, heart disease and other health problems Helps protect cells from free radicals Includes vitamins A, C, E Found in a number of dark green, deep yellow and orange fruits and vegetables

Minerals:

7- 21 Minerals More than 20 minerals have essential roles in the body, including: Calcium Iron Many are stored in liver and bones Required for a number of things: Bones Teeth Activating enzymes Energy production Maintaining water balance

Production of Energy:

7- 22 Production of Energy Occurs when cells break down chemical units of glucose and fats or amino acids Must burn energy-supplying nutrients Results in heat production and usable energy for cells to work Proportions of nutrients burned depend on type, duration and intensity of exercise

Nutrient Dense vs. Junk Foods:

7- 23 Nutrient Dense vs. Junk Foods Nutrient dense Foods containing considerable amounts of vitamins, minerals, and proteins in relation to their caloric content Junk foods Contain too many calories (through sugar and fats) in relation to the proportion of vitamins and minerals

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations:

7- 24 Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations Requirement: Amount of a nutrient that is needed to prevent nutrient deficiency disease Recommendations: Takes into account the amount necessary to avoid deficiency US Recommended Dietary Allowances (USRDA): Allows for comparison of the nutrition of food products Dietary Reference Index (DRI) Upper intake levels (UL) Estimated average requirement (EAR) Adequate intake (AI)

Dietary Guidelines:

7- 25 Dietary Guidelines Nutrition and health recommendations for healthy children and adults In 2010, more emphasis was placed on helping consumers build healthier diets Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk, lean meats/poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts Actionable messages include: Balance calories Foods to increase Foods to decrease

MyPlate:

7- 26 MyPlate 2011 campaign that focuses on healthier eating habits Helps consumers build a healthy “plate” based around fruit, vegetables, grains, protein, and dairy Identifies percentages of different types of food to eat in a given meal

Reading Labels:

7- 27 Reading Labels Lists total calories and calories from fat per serving Information that is based on percent daily values Provides information on specific nutrients relative to % daily values

What is the role of nutrition in physical activity?:

7- 28 What is the role of nutrition in physical activity? Physically active people believe that certain nutrients can help in achieving fitness goals/competitive edge Sometimes certain foods will be avoided by athletes

Nutritional Supplements:

7- 29 Nutritional Supplements Little evidence that vitamin, mineral or protein supplementation enhances physical performance: Be a careful consumer Generic vitamins and minerals are just as effective Don’t be misled by labels Consuming more than 150% of the recommended levels may be unhealthy Supplements should not be a substitute for food

Sugar:

7- 30 Sugar Ingesting large quantities of sugar prior to activity causes increased glucose in the blood Release of insulin stimulated, allowing cells to utilize free-circulating glucose, sparing blood glucose Positive effect on performance However, some athletes are sensitive to high CHO feedings and have problems with increased levels of insulin

Caffeine:

7- 31 Caffeine Central nervous system stimulant found in carbonated beverages, coffee, tea Increases alertness and decreases fatigue Too much causes nervousness, irritability, increased heart rate and headaches

Alcohol:

7- 32 Alcohol Provides energy for the body Little nutritional value Central nervous system depressant Not wise to replace water with alcohol before, during, or following activity Too much alcohol can damage liver and brain cells

Herbs:

7- 33 Herbs Safe to ingest as natural medicines with few side effects (occasional allergic reaction) No federal or governmental regulations on quality or distribution Exercise caution with consumption Herbs serve as body balancers that work with functions of the body Uses may be general for overall strength and nutrient support or specific to a condition or ailment

The Problem with Eating Fast Food:

7- 34 The Problem with Eating Fast Food 40-50% of calories consumed in fast food are fat calories Add the “supersize” label and the problem is compounded Some fast food establishments have worked to broaden their menu to include healthier options Nutritional information is also available for the consumer

Pre-event Meal:

7- 35 Pre-event Meal Long term food consumption is more important than immediate consumption Purpose should be to provide competitor with nutrients/energy and fluids for competitions A light (300 calories) meal 2-4 hours before is encouraged Avoid a full stomach and fatty foods Preloading with water is also suggested

Vegetarianism:

7- 36 Vegetarianism Utilizes plants to form foundation of diet Economic, philosophical, religious, cultural, or health reasons Diet must be carefully planned Total vegetarian (vegan): No animal products Lactovegetarian: Consumes plant and milk products Ovolactovegetarian: Consumes plant, milk, and egg products Semivegetarian: Does not consume red meats

Food Safety:

7- 37 Food Safety Must be careful both with food preparation and consumption Foodborne illness: Result of bacteria in food Raw foods are most common source due to lack of sterilization Can happen in your kitchen if food left out for 2 or more hours at room temperature Treatment: Increase fluid intake; hospitalization if more serious