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Chapter 7: Early Adulthood :

Chapter 7: Early Adulthood Module 7.3: Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood

Looking Ahead:

Looking Ahead How do young adults form loving relationships, and how does love change over time? How do people choose spouses, and what makes relationships work and cease working? How does the arrival of children affect a relationship? Why is choosing a career such an important issue for young adults, and what factors influence the choice of a career? Why do people work, and what elements of a job bring satisfaction?

Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood:

Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood Look at Table 7-4 to review these tasks

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Forging Relationships: Intimacy, Liking, and Loving During Early Adulthood ? ? ?

What makes young adults happy?:

What makes young adults happy? Happiest memories: psychological needs rather than material needs satisfied Unhappiest memories: basic psychological needs left unfulfilled Culture influences which psychological needs are most important in determining happiness

What makes us tick? :

What makes us tick?

Seeking Intimacy: Erikson’s View of Young Adulthood:

Seeking Intimacy: Erikson’s View of Young Adulthood Intimacy-Versus-Isolation Stage Intimacy: close, intimate relationship with others Isolation: feelings of loneliness and fear of relationships


Friendship Important part of adult life  need for belonging Filters Personal qualities

The Friends We Choose:

The Friends We Choose

Falling in Love: When Liking Turns to Loving:

Falling in Love: When Liking Turns to Loving How does love develop? ? ? ?

Falling in Love:

Falling in Love STIMULUS-VALUE-ROLE (SVR) THEORY (Murstein )

Passionate and Companionate Love: Two Faces of Love:

Passionate and Companionate Love: Two Faces of Love Passionate (romantic) love Companionate love


LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE If it hurts, is it really love? How do you know? ? ? ?

Sternberg’s Triangular Theory: Three Faces of Love:

Sternberg’s Triangular Theory: Three Faces of Love Robert Sternberg Intimacy Passion Decision/Commitment

Do as I Say, Not as I Do:

Do as I Say, Not as I Do Relatively high number of people report close friend of a different race Relatively low number actually name someone of another race or ethnicity

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Choosing a Partner: Recognizing Mr. or Ms. Right

Seeking a Spouse: Is Love All That Matters?:

Seeking a Spouse: Is Love All That Matters? US: love as a major factor In other cultures, love may be a secondary Emotional maturity, health, similar education, chastity

Choosing a Mate:

Choosing a Mate

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Does this evolutionary explanation make sense to you? ? ? ?

Filtering Models of Mate Selection:

Filtering Models of Mate Selection Louis Janda and Karen Llenke-Hamel Broad determinants of attractiveness Specifics End result

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Do you think you will use the principle of homogamy to select a mate? ? ? ?

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What happens when the marriage gradient faces the cougar? ? ? ?

Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationships:

Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationships Infant attachment style is reflected in adult romantic relationships (Shaver) Secure Avoidant Anxious-ambivalent

Cultural Dimensions:

Cultural Dimensions Gay and Lesbian Relationships: Men with Men and Women with Women Research findings suggest that gay and lesbian relationships are quite similar to relationships between heterosexuals Most gays and lesbians seek loving, long-term, and meaningful relationships that differ little qualitatively from those desired by heterosexuals

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Should marriage be a legal option for lesbians and gays? ? ? ?

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW According to Erikson, young adults are in the intimacy-versus-isolation stage. Types of love include passionate and companionate love. Sternberg’s triangular theory identifies three basic components (intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment).

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW In general, the values applied to relationships by heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples are more similar than different.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY Consider a long-term marriage with which you are familiar. Do you think the relationship involves passionate love or companionate love (or both)? What changes when a relationship moves from passionate to companionate love? From companionate to passionate love? In which direction is it more difficult for a relationship to move? Why?

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The Course of Relationships

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Are you a POSSLQ? ? ? ?

To Marry or Not to Marry: That is the Question:

To Marry or Not to Marry: That is the Question

Why do people choose cohabitation rather than marriage?:

Why do people choose cohabitation rather than marriage? Not ready for lifelong commitment “Practice” for marriage Reject institution of marriage

Why marry?:

Why marry? Preferred alternative during early adulthood Desirability of spouse roles Legitimatization of children Legal benefits and protections

Why do people wait?:

Why do people wait?

What makes marriage work?:

What makes marriage work? Successful married partners: Show affection Communicate relatively little negativity Perceive themselves as interdependent Experience social homogamy, similarity in leisure activity, and role preferences Hold similar interests Agree on distribution of roles

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Why? ? ? ?

But the news is not all bad!:

But the news is not all bad! Most married couples: View early years of marriage as deeply satisfying Find themselves more deeply in love than before marriage Report newlywed period as one of happiest in entire married life

Parenthood: Choosing to Have Children:

Parenthood: Choosing to Have Children

What produced the decline in the US fertility rate? :

What produced the decline in the US fertility rate? Availability of more reliable birth control methods Increasing numbers of women working outside the home Choosing to have children later Cost of raising and educating children Fear of not being good or accessible parent

Dual-Earner Couples:

Dual-Earner Couples Working Parent Statistics and Distribution of Chores

Two’s a Couple, Three’s a Crowd?:

Two’s a Couple, Three’s a Crowd? Dramatic shift in spouse's roles Challenges to marital satisfaction Successful coping

Gay and Lesbian Parents:

Gay and Lesbian Parents About 20% of gay men and lesbian women are parents No difference in psychological adjustment from that of children raised in heterosexual homes Specialization of roles develops



From Research to Practice:

From Research to Practice Majority of American Women Are Living Without Spouse What do the numbers say? What do the numbers mean?

Something to ponder…:

Something to ponder… Why do you think that women are less inclined to remarry after a divorce than men are? ? ? ?

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Success in marriage includes two partners who visibly show affection and communicate relatively little negativity, perceive themselves as an independent couple instead of two independent individuals, share similar interests, and agree on role distribution.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW The most common reasons for having children are psychological. Parents derive pleasure from helping their children grow, fulfillment from their accomplishments, and enjoyment from forming a close bond with them.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY In what ways do you think cognitive changes in early adulthood (e.g., the emergence of postformal thought and practical intelligence) affect how young adults deal with questions of marriage, divorce, and childrearing?

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Work: Choosing and Embarking on a Career

Identity During Young Adulthood: Role of Work:

Identity During Young Adulthood: Role of Work Vaillant: Career consolidation General pattern of psychological development as young adults center on careers Career concerns supplant focus on intimacy Criticisms Highly restricted sample limits Generalizability Dated findings questions in view of shifts in attitudes toward importance of work

Picking an Occupation:

Picking an Occupation Ginzberg’s Career Choice Theory Fantasy period Tentative period Realistic period Criticism Non-representative sample Overstates choices and options to lower SES people Age demarcations may be too rigid

Picking an Occupation:

Picking an Occupation Holland’s Personality Type Theory Realistic Intellectual Social Conventional Enterprising Artistic Criticism Lack of fit for many Exceptions to typology

Gender and Career Choices: Women’s Work:

Gender and Career Choices: Women’s Work Traditionally Communal professions = women Agentic professions = men Women less likely found in male-dominated professions

The Gender-Wage Gap:

The Gender-Wage Gap

Why Do People Work?:

Why Do People Work? Motivation Extrinsic Intrinsic Personal identity Status

A question…:

A question… If your professor shines shoes on the weekend, where does she or he fall on the status hierarchy? ? ? ?

What is the status of…?:

What is the status of…? What is the status of the career you hope to enter? Were you surprised?

Satisfaction on the Job:

Satisfaction on the Job Satisfaction related to job status Worker satisfaction also associated with: Nature of job Amount of input one has into one’s duties Influence employees have over others

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development:

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Choosing a Career: Beginning Guidelines Systematically evaluate a variety of choices. Know yourself. Create a “balance sheet.” “Try out” different careers through paid or unpaid internships. Remember that if you make a mistake, you can change careers. It is reasonable to expect that careers may change throughout life.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Choosing a career is an important step in early adulthood. Gender stereotypes are changing, but women still experience subtle prejudice in career choices, roles, and wages. People work because of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation factors.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY If Vaillant’s study were performed today on women, in what ways do you think the results would be similar to or different from those of the original study?

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