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Chapter 6: Adolescence:

Chapter 6: Adolescence Module 6.3: Social and Personality Development in Adolescence

Looking Ahead:

Looking Ahead How does the development of self-concept, self-esteem, and identity proceed during adolescence? What dangers do adolescents face as they deal with the stresses of adolescence? How does the quality of relationships with family and peers change during adolescence? What are gender, race, and ethnic relations like in adolescence? What does it mean to be popular and unpopular in adolescence, and how do adolescents respond to peer pressure? What are the functions and characteristics of dating during adolescence? How does sexuality develop in the adolescent years?

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Identity: Asking “Who Am I?”

Identity: Asking "Who Am I?" :

Identity: Asking "Who Am I?" Self consciousness takes center stage WHY? More like adults intellectually More like adults physically

Self Concept: What Am I Like?:

Self Concept: What Am I Like? View broadens One's own assessment of who they are Others' views More organized and coherent View self in terms of traits and multiple aspects

Self-esteem: How Do I Like Myself?:

Self-esteem: How Do I Like Myself?

Influences on Self-Esteem:

Influences on Self-Esteem Traditional research Prejudice is incorporated into minority adolescents' self-concepts Recent research African-American adolescents have same levels of self-esteem as Caucasians Strong racial identity is related to higher self-esteem levels

“Ethgender”:

“Ethgender” Joint influence of race and gender (“ethgender”) Findings indicate that: African-American and Hispanic males had highest self-esteem Asian and Native American females had lowest levels

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Identity Formation: Change or Crisis?

Identity Formation: Change or Crisis?:

Identity Formation: Change or Crisis? Identity-Versus-Identity-Confusion Stage Identity: appropriate identity that sets foundation for future psychosocial development Confusion: sense of self is “diffuse” with adoption of socially unacceptable roles

Erikson: Identity versus Confusion:

Erikson: Identity versus Confusion Psychological moratorium Experimentation period Probably no lasting, negative psychological affects Some benefits

Societal Pressures and Reliance on Friends and Peers:

Societal Pressures and Reliance on Friends and Peers Societal pressures high during identity-versus-identity-confusion stage Difficult choices about future plans Gender differences

Limitations of Erikson’s Theory :

Limitations of Erikson’s Theory Male identity development used as standard against which to compare female identity

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Updating Erikson

Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development:

Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development Crisis or commitment Identity Achievement Identity Foreclosure Identity Diffusion Moratorium

Identity, Race and Ethnicity:

Identity, Race and Ethnicity

Psychological Difficulties in Adolescence :

Psychological Difficulties in Adolescence Depression Incidence Causes Differences

PowerPoint Presentation:

Suicide Incidence Attempts Differences Psychological Difficulties in Adolescence

Adolescent Suicide:

Adolescent Suicide Other factors in adolescent suicide: Depression Family conflicts History of abuse and/or neglect Drug and alcohol abuse

Gender Differences in Depression:

Gender Differences in Depression Higher incidence among girls than boys Stress more pronounced for girls due to many, sometimes conflicting demands of traditional female gender role

PowerPoint Presentation:

What contributes most to the increased suicide rate among US adolescents today? ? ? ?

A Call for Help:

A Call for Help

Warning Signs :

Warning Signs Direct or indirect talk School difficulties Writing a will Changes in eating habits General depression Dramatic behavior changes Preoccupation with death

How can you help?:

How can you help? Take 5 minutes to brainstorm about ways you might help a friend you believe is at risk for suicide. Find a class partner/group to share your ideas. Identify the top three suggestions in your group. Share your suggestions with the class.

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development:

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Preventing Adolescent Suicide Listen without judging Talk specifically about suicidal thoughts Evaluate the situation, trying to distinguish between general upset and more serious danger Be supportive, let the person know you care Take charge of finding help

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development:

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Preventing Adolescent Suicide (continued) Make the environment safe Do not keep suicide talk or threats secret Do not challenge, dare, or use verbal shock treatment Make a contract with the person Don’t be overly reassured by a sudden improvement of mood

For immediate help with a suicide-related problem, call: (800) 784-2433 or (800) 621-4000, national hotlines staffed with trained counselors :

For immediate help with a suicide-related problem, call: (800) 784-2433 or (800) 621-4000 , national hotlines staffed with trained counselors

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Self-concept during adolescence grows more differentiated as the view of the self becomes more organized, broader, and more abstract, and takes account of the views of others. Both Erikson’s identity-versus-identity-confusion stage and Marcia’s four identity statuses focus on the adolescent’s struggle to determine an identity and a role in society.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW One of the dangers that adolescents face is depression, which affects girls more than boys.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY What are some consequences of the shift from reliance on adults to reliance on peers? Are there advantages? Dangers?

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Relationships: Family and Friends

Family Ties: Changing Relations with Relations:

Family Ties: Changing Relations with Relations

The Quest for Autonomy :

The Quest for Autonomy Adolescents increasingly seek autonomy, independence and a sense of control Primary developmental task Grows gradually over course of adolescence Consists of changes in relational symmetry

Culture and Autonomy :

Culture and Autonomy Cultural and gender factors play an important role Western societies Asian societies Adolescents from different cultural backgrounds also vary in degree of felt family obligation In general, male adolescents are permitted more autonomy at earlier age than female adolescents

The Myth of the Generation Gap:

The Myth of the Generation Gap Generation Gap Social, political, and religious issues Dress, music, friends Difference in values and attitudes between teens is greater than the difference between parent and teen.

Time Spent by Teens with Parents:

Despite their request for autonomy & independence, most teens have deep love, affection & respect for their parents The amount of time spent with each parent remains remarkably stable across adolescence Time Spent by Teens with Parents

Conflicts with Parents:

Conflicts with Parents Primary issues Cultural differences

Relationships with Peers: The Importance of Belonging:

Relationships with Peers: The Importance of Belonging Peer relationships Critical during adolescence Provide opportunity for social comparison and information Reference groups

Cliques and Crowds: Belonging to a Group :

Cliques and Crowds: Belonging to a Group

Cultural Dimensions:

Cultural Dimensions Race Segregation: The Great Divide of Adolescence Adolescents of different ethnicities and races interact very little Decline begins in elementary school

PowerPoint Presentation:

Why does racial and ethnic segregation often exist, even in schools that have been desegregated for some time? ? ? ?

Popularity and Rejection:

Popularity and Rejection Adolescent social world is complex High status categories Low status categories

The Social World of Adolescence:

A teen’s popularity can fall into one of four categories, depending on the opinions of his or her peers. Popularity is related to differences in status, behavior and adjustment. The Social World of Adolescence

Conformity: Peer Pressure in Adolescence:

Conformity: Peer Pressure in Adolescence Susceptibility and conformity Few empirical studies Brown  how much pressure peers exerted Overall perception Gender differences Kinds of peer pressure

PowerPoint Presentation:

Juvenile Delinquency: Crimes of Adolescence

Who are they?:

Who are they? Undersocialized delinquents Socialized delinquents

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW The search for autonomy may change relations between teenagers and their parents, but the generation gap is less wide than is generally thought. Cliques and crowds serve as reference groups in adolescence offering a means of social comparison. Sex cleavage gradually diminishes, until boys and girls begin to pair off. Racial separation increases during adolescence, bolstered by socioeconomic status differences, different academic experiences, and mutually distrustful attitudes.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY Tracing back to your own high school days, what was the dominant clique in your school and what factors were related to group membership?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dating, Sexual Behavior, and Teenage Pregnancy

Dating: Close Relationships in the 21st Century:

Dating: Close Relationships in the 21st Century Dating Learning to establish intimacy Learning to engage in entertainment Shaping identity Cultural influences affect dating patterns

What are the functions of dating? :

What are the functions of dating? Pattern of courtship that lead to marriage Way to learn to establish intimacy Mechanism to provide entertainment and prestige Resource to develop a sense of one’s own identity

Dating and the Development of Psychological Intimacy:

Dating and the Development of Psychological Intimacy Dating in early and middle adolescence is not terribly successful at facilitating intimacy True intimacy becomes more common during later adolescence Gay and lesbian couples experience a variety of challenges related to dating

Sexual Relationships:

Sexual Relationships

Adolescents and Sexual Activity:

Adolescents and Sexual Activity

Sexual Orientation: Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, and Bisexuality:

Sexual Orientation: Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, and Bisexuality Sexual orientation questions occur at adolescence Heterosexuality Homosexuality Bisexuality

What Determines Sexual Orientation?:

What Determines Sexual Orientation? Genetic and biological factor Family and peers Conditioning

Teenage Pregnancies:

Teenage Pregnancies

What contributes to the decline in teenage pregnancy?:

What contributes to the decline in teenage pregnancy? New initiatives have raised awareness among teenagers of the risks of unprotected sex The rates of sexual intercourse among teenagers has declined The use of condoms and other forms of contraception has increased Substitutes for sexual intercourse may be more prevalent

PowerPoint Presentation:

Does “Just say NO” work? ? ? ?

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Dating in adolescence serves a number of functions including intimacy, entertainment, and prestige. Sexual intercourse is a major milestone that most people reach during adolescence. The age of first intercourse reflects cultural differences and has been declining over the last 50 years.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Sexual orientation, which is most accurately viewed as a continuum rather than categorically, develops as the result of a complex combination of factors.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY What aspects of the social world of adolescents work against the achievement of true intimacy in dating?

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