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Chapter 6: Adolescence:

Chapter 6: Adolescence Module 6.1: Physical Development in Adolescence

Looking Ahead:

Looking Ahead What physical changes do adolescents experience? What are the consequences of early and late maturation? What nutritional needs and concerns do adolescents have? What are some threats to the well-being of adolescents? What dangers do adolescent sexual practices present, and how can these dangers be avoided?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Physical Maturation

Growth During Adolescence:

Growth During Adolescence Rapid Pace of Physical and Sexual Maturation Adolescence Growth spurt

See How They Grow!:

See How They Grow!

Physical Manifestations of Puberty:

Physical Manifestations of Puberty

Puberty in Girls:

Puberty in Girls Begins earlier for girls than for boys Girls start puberty at around age 11 or 12, and boys begin at around age 13 or 14 Wide variations among individuals Influenced by environment

Onset of Menarche:

Onset of Menarche Varies in different parts of world Begins later in poorer, developing countries Influenced by proportion of fat to muscle in body Related to environmental stress

Puberty in Boys:

Puberty in Boys Penis and scrotum begin to grow at accelerated rate around age 12 and reach adult size about 3 or 4 years later Enlargement of prostate gland and seminal vesicles Spermarche around age 13

What is a secular trend?:

What is a secular trend? Earlier start of puberty is example of significant secular trend Pattern of change occurring over several generations Trends occur when physical characteristic changes over course of several generations Result of better nutrition over centuries

Primary Sex Characteristics:

Primary Sex Characteristics Further development of sex glands Testes in males Ovaries in females

Secondary Sex Characteristics:

Secondary Sex Characteristics Changes in genitals and breasts Growth of hair: Pubic Facial Body Further development of sex organs

Summary of Changes in Adolescence: Sexual Maturation:

Summary of Changes in Adolescence: Sexual Maturation

Changes in Body Composition:

Changes in Body Composition Body fat Quantity and distribution of fat Muscle Quantity and distribution of muscle

Changes in Circulatory and Respiratory Systems:

Changes in Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

Onset of Puberty:

Onset of Puberty Gradual process Roles of hormones ( Collaer & Hines, 1995) Organizational Endocrine system levels of sex hormones Feedback loop Hypothalamus pituitary glandgonads (ovaries and testes)

Adolescent Growth Spurt:

Adolescent Growth Spurt

Sexual Maturation:

Sexual Maturation Primary sex characteristics: characteristics associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body that relate to reproduction Secondary sex characteristics: visible signs of sexual maturity that do not directly involve the sex organs

Timing and Tempo of Puberty:

Timing and Tempo of Puberty Variation of timing and tempo great No relationship between onset and rate of pubertal development Some differences; causes are inconclusive

Psychological Impact of Puberty:

Psychological Impact of Puberty Biological changes can have direct impact on behavior Biological changes can impact self-image which in turn affects behavior Biological changes transform appearance which may affect reactions of others, especially peers

Impact of Specific Pubertal Events:

Impact of Specific Pubertal Events Females Menarche Positive attitude  gains in social maturity, peer prestige, self-esteem Negative attitude  greater menstrual discomfort Males Ejaculation Little research May be related to how culture views masturbation

Immediate Impact of Puberty:

Immediate Impact of Puberty Self-esteem Modest decline among girls when accompanied by other changes that require adaptation  social context is important

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nutrition, Food, and Eating Disorders: Fueling the Growth of Adolescence

Nutritional Problems in Adolescence:

Nutritional Problems in Adolescence Poor eating habits High consumption of junk food/sugar/fats Large portion sizes Lack of variety Related health concerns Obesity Osteoporosis Diabetes Heart disease

Pubertal Changes and Eating Disorders:

Pubertal Changes and Eating Disorders

Obesity:

Obesity Ratio of body fat to muscle increases Basal metabolism rate decreases Overall physical appearance changes 20% overweight; 5% obese; 15% seriously overweight

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia:

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Definitions Anorexia: starvation to maintain low weight Bulimia: binge and purge eating 1% anorexic and 3% bulimic Higher incidence among females Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction reported across socioeconomic lines

Adolescent Health:

Adolescent Health One of healthiest times in life span Relatively low incidence of disabling or chronic illness Secular trend shows decrease in rates of death and disability Medical technology has improved health care for children and youth

Adolescent Health:

Adolescent Health Unhealthy behaviors Drug use Violence Self-inflicted and other-inflicted Risky activity Unprotected sexual intercourse Drunken driving Period of relative great physical risk  new morbidity and mortality

PowerPoint Presentation:

Brain Development and Thought: Paving the Way for Cognitive Growth

A No Brainer?:

A No Brainer?

Use It or Lose It:

Use It or Lose It Brain produces oversupply of gray matter during adolescence which is later pruned back at rate of one to two percent per year

The Primal Teen:

The Primal Teen “…as the teenage brain is reconfigured, it remains more exposed, more easily wounded, perhaps much more susceptible to critical and long-lasting damage than most parents and educators or even most scientists had thought.” — (Strauch, 2003)

From Research to Practice:

From Research to Practice Immature Brain Argument: Too Young for the Death Penalty? After reading the information on page 266, answer the following questions: Do you think that the penalty for criminal behavior should be tied to the maturity of a criminal’s brain? Why or why not? Are there other aspects of physical development that should be taken into consideration in determining a person’s responsibility for criminal activity?

Booze It or Lose It!:

Booze It or Lose It! Adolescent brain development produces changes in regions involving dopamine sensitivity and production Adolescents may become less susceptible to effects of alcohol More drinks required to experience reinforcing qualities—leading to higher alcohol intake Alterations in dopamine sensitivity may create more sensitivity to stress, leading to further alcohol use

Yawning of the Age of Adolescence:

Yawning of the Age of Adolescence Sleep Deprivation Adolescents go to bed later and get up earlier Sleep deprivation takes its toll Lower grades More depressed Greater difficulty controlling their moods Greater risk for auto accidents

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Adolescence is a period of rapid physical growth, including the changes puberty brings. Adolescents’ responses to puberty range widely—from confusion to increased self-esteem. Adequate nutrition is essential to fuel adolescents’ physical growth. Changing physical needs and environmental pressures can induce obesity or eating disorders.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY How can societal and environmental influences contribute to eating disorders?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being

Why do adolescents use drugs?:

Why do adolescents use drugs?

Alcohol: Use and Abuse :

Alcohol: Use and Abuse Incidence Binge drinking

Why do adolescents start to drink? :

Why do adolescents start to drink? Way of proving themselves Release of inhibitions and tension and reduction of stress False consensus effect

From Activity to Addiction:

From Activity to Addiction Adolescent alcoholics Alcohol use becomes uncontrollable habit Increasing ability to tolerate alcohol Increasing need to drink ever-larger amounts of liquor to bring about positive effects craved

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development:

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Hooked on Drugs or Alcohol? Signals Identification with the drug culture Signs of physical deterioration Dramatic changes in school performance Changes in behavior (Adapted from Franck & Brownstone, 1991, p. 593–594)

Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking:

Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking Incidence Differences: Gender International Racial

Why do adolescents begin to smoke and maintain the habit? :

Why do adolescents begin to smoke and maintain the habit?

Cultural Dimensions:

Cultural Dimensions Pushing Smoking to the Less Advantaged Tobacco companies carve out new markets by turning to least advantaged Tobacco companies aggressively recruit adolescent smokers abroad

How Many? :

How Many?

Other Sexually Transmitted Infections :

Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Human papilloma virus (HPV) Trichomoniasis Genital herpes Gonorrhea and syphilis

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW The use of illegal drugs and alcohol is prevalent among adolescents as a way to find pleasure, avoid pressure, or gain the approval of peers. Despite the well-known dangers of smoking, adolescents often smoke to enhance their images or emulate adults.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW One out of four adolescents contracts a sexually transmitted infection (STI) before graduating from high school. AIDS is the most serious of the sexually transmitted infections, ultimately causing death. Safe sex practices or sexual abstinence can prevent AIDS, although adolescents often ignore these strategies.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY How do adolescents’ concerns about self-image and their perception that they are the center of attention contribute to smoking and alcohol use?

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